|Scientific Name:||Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)|
Siphostoma floridae Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
Siphostoma mckayi Swain and Meek, 1884
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Jordan, D. S. and Gilbert, C. H. 1882. Notes on fishes observed about Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas, with description of new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5(282): 241-307.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Bartnik, S., Carpenter, K.E., Collette, B.B., Dooley, J., Fritzsche, R., Morgan, S.K., Nelson, J., Robinson, E. & Stump, E.|
Syngnathus floridae is a coastal marine pipefish that inhabits seagrass beds from the Chesapeake Bay to Panama. Although the species is threatened by seagrass habitat loss, especially in the Gulf of Mexico, it has been shown to be common and stable in other localities. Seagrasses are apparently stable in the Chesapeake Bay. Further population and habitat monitoring are needed for this species, but it is not thought to have undergone declines approaching thresholds for a threatened listing. Therefore this species is listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Syngnathus floridae is distributed in the western Atlantic from the Chesapeake Bay south along the U.S., Bermuda, the northern Bahamas, throughout the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Caribbean Sea along Central America from Mexico to Panama (Dawson 1982, Fritzsche and Vincent 2002). Records from Haiti are not valid (R. Robertson pers. comm. 2014).|
Native:Bahamas; Belize; Bermuda; Cuba; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Syngnathus floridae is reported to be abundant in Chesapeake Bay (Ripley and Foran 2006) and common in Florida Bay (Thayer et al. 1999). It is not common off Mexico in the Gulf of Mexico (M. Vega-Cendejas pers. comm. 2013). In 2016 Sygnathus floridae was the third most abundant sygnathid (of nine species) found in underwater visual surveys of Biscayne National Park. It occupied 17 of a total of 79 sites searched, and 17 of the 32 sites which were occupied by sygnathids. Thirty-two individuals were found in total (E. Stump unpublished data). |
An earlier decrease in the numbers of Syngnathus floridae in Florida Bay was linked to the habitat degradation of seagrass meadows. A study conducted in Florida Bay recorded a total of 36 specimens (Sogard et al. 1989). In a study conducted on mud banks in Florida Bay, 13 specimens were collected in the 1980s and 7 specimens in the 1990s (Matheson et al. 1999). A study conducted in Florida Bay in 1984-1985 recorded 33.1 individuals of this species per hectare, in 1994-1995, 18.6 individuals were recorded per hectare (Thayer et al. 1999). In a study conducted in Florida Bay from 2006-2009 using an otter trawl, 346 specimens were collected with a percent occurrence of 27.2% (Flaherty et al. 2013). Between 2005-2007, a total of 88 specimens were recorded with a 1.54% frequency in Tampa Bay, Florida (Masonjones et al. 2010). Catch-per-unit effort (individuals per 100 square meters) data for S. scovelli in 21.3-m bay seines in the Tampa Bay estuary: 0.22 in 1996, 0.30 in 1997, 0.11 in 1998, 0.28 in 1999, 0.26 in 2000, 0.23 in 2001, 0.09 in 2002, 0.12 in 2003, 0.09 in 2004, 0.04 in 2005, and 0.16 in 2006 with an average percent contribution of 1.07% (Flaherty and Landsberg 2011).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Syngnathus floridae inhabits coastal seagrass beds. They are ovovivparous, and males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail and give live birth (Breder and Rosen 1966). Their mating habits have been characterized as polygynandrous (Jones and Avise 1997). This species feeds primarily on detritus and plant remains, planktonic copepods and other crustaceans in the spring and fall during its early growth stages. They tend to focus on shrimp during Autumn (Livingston 1982). In Biscayne Bay, Florida, the species sometimes co-occurred with Hippocampus zosterae, S. scovelli, S. louisianae, or Cosmocampus albirostrus. It was most abundant in continuous seagrass habitat characterized by long blade lengths and relatively dense growth of Thallasia (E. Stump unpublished data). It occurs in relatively warm waters where breeding can occur year-round (Jones and Avise 2001). In a study conducted off Mississippi, nektonic juvenile specimens had a standard length ranging from 36.8-53.6 mm, located at depths of 18-55m, with salinity ranging between 19.0-27.0% and temperature from 25.1-29.8 degrees Celsius (Dawson 1972).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||Although this species has not been specifically identified in trade, pipefishes in general are often targeted and/or caught as trawl bycatch and subsequently traded for use in aquariums, as curios, and in traditional medicines (Vincent et al. 2011). This species may be involved, but levels of offtake are not known.|
The major threat for Syngnathus floridae the degradation and loss of seagrass meadows due to a number of threats relating to water quality such as sedimentation, coastal run-off, sewage outflows, as well as habitat disturbance from coastal development, boat traffic, and destructive trawling (Handley et al. 2007, Orth et al. 2010, Short et al. 2011). Extensive seagrass die-offs occurred across Florida Bay beginning largely in 1987. Since this initial steep decline, Florida has lost more than half of its seagrasses (Matheson et al. 1999). Degraded seagrass habitats can take as long as 10 years to return to a healthy state.
Seagrass habitat is less well-studied off the Atlantic coast, but studies from some areas indicate stability or increases that do not meet restoration targets (Orth et al. 2010). A similar dearth of information on S. floridae and seagrass habitats exists for the southern portion of the species' Caribbean range.
There are no other known threats to this species.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Syngnathus floridae. Monitoring of its seagrass habitat is needed, along with range-wide population estimates and monitoring. The species is inferred to be declining based on the decline of its seagrass habitat (Matheson et al. 1999, Orth et al. 2010).|
Acero, A.P. 1985. Zoogeographical implications of the distribution of selected families of Caribbean coral reef fishes. In: M. Harmelin Vivien and B. Salvat (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth International Coral Reef Congress. Tahiti.
A.G. Jones, J.C. Avise. 2001. Mating Systems and Sexual Selection in Male-Pregnant Pipefishes and Seahorses: Insights from Microsatellite-Based Studies of Maternity. Journal of Heredity 92(2): 150-158.
Böhlke, J.E. and Chaplin, C.C.G. 1993. Fishes of the Bahamas and adjacent tropical waters. 2nd edition. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, USA.
Breder, C.M. and Rosen, D.E. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
Breder, C.M. and Rosen, D.E. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, USA.
Brook, I.M. 1977. Trophic relationships in a seagrass community (Thalassia testudinum), in Card Sound, Florida. Fish diets in relation to macrobenthic and cryptic faunal abundance. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106(3): 219-229.
Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen.
Claro, R. and Parenti, L.R. 2001. The marine ichthyofauna of Cuba. In: R. Claro, K.C. Lindeman and L.R. Parenti (eds), Ecology of the marine fishes of Cuba, pp. 21-57. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, USA.
Dawson, C.E. 1972. Nektonic pipefishes (Syngnathidae) from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi. Copeia 1972(4): 844-848.
Dawson, C.E. 1982. Family Syngnathidae.The pipefishes. In Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res. 1(8): 1-172.
Eschmeyer, W.N. 1997. PISCES. Available at: gopher://gopher.calacademy.org:640/7.
Flaherty, K. and Landsberg, J. 2011. Effects of a Persistent Red Tide (Karenia brevis) Bloom on Community Structure and Species-Specific Relative Abundance of Nekton in a Gulf of Mexico Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts 34: 417-439.
Flaherty, K.E., Mathesen Jr., R.E., McMichael Jr., R.H. and Perry, W.B. 2013. The Influence of Freshwater on Nekton Community Structure in Hydrologically Distinct Basins in Northeastern Florida Bay, FL, USA. Estuaries and Coasts: 1-22.
Fritzsche, R.A. and Vincent A. 2002. Order Gasterosteiformes Syngnathidae.
Gulf of Mexico Program. 2004. Seagrass Habitat in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Degradation, Conservation and Restoration of a Valuable Resource. Available at: http://gulfsci.usgs.gov/gom_ims/pdf/pubs_gom.pdf. (Accessed: 16/11/2007).
Handley, L., Altsman, D., and DeMay, R. 2007. Seagrass Status and Trends in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: 1940–2002. Scientific Investigations Reports. United States Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hinegardner, R. and Rosen, D.E. 1972. Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. American Naturalist 106(951): 621-644.
International Coral Reef Initiative. 2006. Member’s report on activities to ICRI. General Meeting. ICRI GM Japan/Palau (2) 2006/MR/9.0/Bermuda. Cozumel, Mexico.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Jones, A. G. and Avise, J. C. 1997. Polygynandry in the dusky pipefish Syngnathus floridae revealed by microsatellite DNA markers. Evolution 51(5): 1611-1622.
Kotlyar, A.N. 1984. Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. French and European publications, Moscow, Russia.
Livingston, Robert J. 1982. Trophic Organization of Fishes in a Coastal Seagrass System. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 7: 1-12.
Lourie, S.A., Vincent, A.C.J. and Hall, H.J. 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London, U.K.
Main, Kevan L. 1985. The influence of prey identity and size on selection of prey by two marine fishes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 88(2): 145-152.
Masonjones, H.D., Rose, E., McRae, L.B., Dixson, D.L. 2010. An examination of the population dynamics of syngnathid fishes within Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Current Zoology 56(1): 118-133.
Matheson Jr., R.E., Camp, D.K., Sogard, S.M., Bjrogo, K.A. 1999. Changes in Seagrass-associated Fish and Crustacean Communities on Florida Bay Mud Banks: The Effects of Recent Ecosystem Changes? . Estuaries 22(28): 534-551.
McEachran, J.D. and Fechhelm, J.D. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin, USA.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Orth, R. J., Marion, S. R., Moore, K. A., and Wilcox, D. J. 2010. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Chesapeake Bay Region of Mid-Atlantic coast of the USA: Challenges in conservation and restoration. Estuaries and Coasts 33(1): 139-150.
Ripley, J. I. and Foran, C. M. 2006. Population structure, growth rates, and seasonal abundance of two Syngnathus pipefish species. Estuaries and Coasts 29(6): 1161-1171.
Robins, C.R. and Ray, G.C. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, USA.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1980. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication Volume 12. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication Volume 20. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Short, F.T., Polidoro, B., Livingston, S.R., Carpenter, K.E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J.S., Calumpong, H.P., Carruthers, T.J.B., Coles, R.G., Dennison, W.C., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Fortes, M.D., Freeman, A.S., Jagtap, T.G., Kamal, A.H.M., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Nafie, Y.A.L., Nasution, I.M., Orth, R.J., Prathep, A., Sanciango, J.C., van Tussenbroek, Vergara, S.G., Waycott, M. and Zieman, J.C. B., 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biological Conservation 144(7): 1961–1971.
Smith, C.L. 1997. National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. A.A. Knopf, New York, USA.
Sogard, S.M., Powell, G.V.M., Holmquist, G. 1989. Spatial distribution and trends in abundance of fishes residing in seagrass meadows on Florida Bay mudbanks. Bulletin of Marine Science 44(1): 179-199.
Teixeira, R.L. and Musick, J.A. 1995. Trophic ecology of two congeneric pipefishes (Syngnathidae) of the lower York River, Virginia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 43(3): 295-309.
Thayer, G. W., Powell, A. B. and Hoss, D. E. 1999. Composition of larval, juvenile, and small adult fishes relative to changes in environmental conditions in Florida Bay. Estuaries 22(2B): 518-533.
Vari, R.P. 1982. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, part 8. Order Gasterosteiformes, suborder Syngnathoidea. Syngnathidae (Doryrhamphinae, Syngnathinae, Hippocampinae). Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo. Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.
Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.
|Citation:||Pollom, R. 2017. Syngnathus floridae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T154853A46924025.Downloaded on 21 February 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|