|Scientific Name:||Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Orcinus glacialis (Berzin & Vladimirov, 1983)
Orcinus nanus Mikhalev et al., 1981
This taxonomic unit is treated as a single species even though there is extensive and growing evidence that it is in fact a complex of multiple forms with morphological, genetic, ecological, and behavioral differences that merit subspecies if not also species designations. At the time of writing (June 2017), the Committee on Taxonomy of the Society for Marine Mammalogy (https://www.marinemammalscience.org/species-information/list-marine-mammal-species-subspecies/), which is generally regarded as the authority for marine mammal taxonomy, recognized a single killer whale species, Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758), and two unnamed subspecies in the eastern North Pacific, the ENP resident killer whale (O. o. un-named subsp.) and the ENP transient killer whale (O. o. un-named subsp.) also known as Bigg’s killer whale. The Committee noted, however, “Other forms of killer whales in the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Antarctic [Southern] Ocean may warrant recognition as separate subspecies or even species, but the taxonomy has not yet been fully clarified or agreed (Morin et al. 2010; Foote et al. 2009, 2013).” One population (a “distinct population segment”) of the ENP resident subspecies (the “southern resident” population) was listed as Endangered under the Canadian Species at Risk Act in 2003 and the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2005.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Reeves, R., Pitman, R.L. & Ford, J.K.B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Lowry, L., Taylor, B.L., Chiozza, F., Pollock, C.M.|
The Killer Whale, as the taxon is presently defined and recognized (Society for Marine Mammalogy 2017), does not meet any of the IUCN Red List criteria for a threatened status. Killer Whales are numerically abundant (at least tens of thousands of mature individuals) and very widely distributed. Experts agree that the present taxon likely includes more than one subspecies, and possibly multiple species. Some small regional populations are known to have declined significantly and would easily qualify for a threatened status if assessed individually (e.g., ENP southern residents, the Bluefin Tuna-dependent population associated with the Strait of Gibraltar), but there is insufficient evidence to support a global decline in the species abundance that would make it meet Criterion A. However, the statement in the previous species assessment (Taylor et al. 2013) still holds: “The combination of potential declines driven by depletion of prey resources and the effects of pollutants is believed sufficient that a 30% global reduction over three generations (77 years; Taylor et al. 2007) cannot be ruled out for some ‘groups’ that may [eventually] be designated as species.”
Although considerable effort continues to be made on improved understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Orcinus, the taxonomic issues have not been fully resolved. This is especially problematic due to the occurrence of sympatric, non-interbreeding ecotypes in the ENP, Antarctic, and possibly elsewhere. The taxon has previously been listed by IUCN as Data Deficient due to taxonomic uncertainty, and that listing should be continued until proper taxonomic units are described and Red List assessments of them can be carried out.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Killer Whale is the most cosmopolitan of all cetaceans and may be the second-most widely ranging mammal species on the planet, after Humans (Rice 1998). Killer Whales may occur in virtually any marine habitat but are most common in cold-water areas of high marine productivity, particularly at higher latitudes and near shore (Dahlheim and Heyning 1999, Forney and Wade 2006). Sightings range from the surf zone to the open sea with no clear restrictions of water temperature or depth on their range. The distribution extends to many semi-enclosed seas such as the Mediterranean Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf.
Although Killer Whales occur worldwide, reported densities are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower in the tropics than in the highest latitudes in the Arctic and Antarctic where there has been sampling (Forney and Wade 2006). Killer Whales tend to be more common along continental margins; however, there is some variation in this general pattern that appears linked to ocean productivity. Killer Whales appear to be less common in warm western boundary currents, such as the Gulf Stream or the Kuroshio Current, than in more productive eastern boundary currents, such as the California Current. However, they are also common in cold-water western boundary currents such as the Oyashio and Falkland Currents.
Native:Algeria; American Samoa; Anguilla; Antarctica; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada (Newfoundland I); Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile; China; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Galápagos); El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Faroe Islands; Fiji; France; French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Kerguelen); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Honduras; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Liberia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Monaco; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Russian Federation; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Aleutian Is., Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Western Sahara; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Arctic Sea; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – Antarctic; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – Antarctic; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – western central; Pacific – Antarctic
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Killer Whale populations have been relatively well-studied in the North Pacific. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, a line-transect survey resulted in an estimate of 8,500 (CV=0.37) in 1986-1990 (Wade and Gerrodette 1993). A catalogue of 86 individuals was compiled for waters around the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, from 1972-1997 (Guerrero-Ruiz et al. 1998). A shipboard line-transect survey of the Hawaii EEZ in 2002 resulted in an estimate of 349 (CV = 0.98) Killer Whales (Barlow 2006). The southern resident population that inhabits the inland waters of Washington State and southern British Columbia numbered 77 whales in June 2017 (K.C. Balcomb, Center for Whale Research, pers. comm., 13 June 2017); it is depleted due to past live removals and is listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and Canada’s Species at Risk Act. The northern resident population in British Columbia numbered 290 in 2014 and had been increasing at a mean rate of 2.2% per annum since 1974 (Towers et al. 2015). A photographic catalogue of the west coast transient population in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska included 272 individuals in 2012 (Towers et al. 2012). This population was estimated to have increased at an average annual rate of about 2% in the two decades ending in 2006 (Ford et al. 2007). Bayesian mark-recapture modelling estimated that there were 300 offshore-type Killer Whales (95% CL 257–373) in the region from Alaska to California in 2012 (Ford et al. 2014). Shipboard line-transect surveys extending out to 300 nm offshore in 2005 and 2007 resulted in an estimate of 691 (CV=0.49) off California, Oregon and Washington (Carretta et al. 2016); these estimates likely include whales from the aforementioned west coast transient, southern resident, northern resident, and offshore populations. A line-transect survey from the Aleutian Islands to the Gulf of Alaska resulted in an estimate of abundance for transient Killer Whales of 251 (CV=0.51) (Zerbini et al. 2007), while the AT1 transient population (which inhabits Prince William Sound and waters of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska) numbered only 7 animals in 2010 (Matkin et al. 2012). Over 700 unique individual resident Killer Whales were photo-identified over the course of a field study during 1984-2010 in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska (Matkin et al. 2014). Only a subset of pods within this population were regularly encountered, and those pods increased in abundance at an average rate of 3.5% per annum during the study. A line-transect survey from the Aleutian Islands to the Gulf of Alaska resulted in an estimate of 991 (CV=0.52) resident Killer Whales and 251 (CV=0.51) transient Killer Whales (Zerbini et al. 2007).
The following figures are available for Killer Whales in the Russian Far East, all representing photo-identified individuals and therefore “minimum” counts (Filatova et al. 2014, Erich Hoyt, Whale and Dolphin Conservation, pers. comm. 12 June 2017): Avacha Gulf/eastern Kamchatka (1999-2013) – resident type 688, transient type 26 (note that rate of new discovery is very low indicating this may be close to actual levels of abundance, and site fidelity is much higher than in the Commander Islands); Commander Islands (2008-2013) - residents > 800, transients 18 (note that rate of new discovery is high so actual abundance is certainly higher and about 80% of the identified individuals were encountered in only one year); western Okhotsk Sea (from Udskaya Gulf to Sakhalin Gulf, mainly Academiya Gulf) (2011-2013) – residents none, transients 55 (note that no dedicated study was carried out, only opportunistic sightings along with beluga research; also this is the population that has been subject to live-capture since 2010).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Killer Whales are known to feed on a wide array of prey, including most marine mammal species (except river dolphins and Manatees), seabirds, sea turtles, many species of fish (including sharks and rays) and cephalopods (Dahlheim and Heyning 1999, Ford and Ellis 1999, Ford 2009). They have a diversity of foraging tactics, including intentional beaching to capture pinnipeds on shore, creating waves to wash seals off ice floes, and using cooperative techniques to herd fish and to attack large prey such as Tuna and large whales (Dahlheim and Heyning 1999, Baird 2000, Pitman and Durban 2012).
Although Killer Whales are a generalist as a species, at least some subpopulations (ecotypes and/or morphotypes) specialize on particular types of prey (Bigg et al. 1990, Baird 2000). Studies in coastal waters of the ENP, from California to Alaska, have described three distinct ecotypes of Killer Whales, referred to as residents, transients (or Bigg’s Killer Whales), and offshores. Although distinguished by ecological differences, there are also differences in coloration, external morphology, behavior and acoustics (Ford and Ellis 2014). The three ecotypes maintain social isolation from each other (i.e., no interbreeding) despite sometimes overlapping ranges. The ENP residents are Pacific Salmon specialists and have a strong preference for one species, the Chinook Salmon (Ford and Ellis 2006). Transients in coastal waters of the ENP focus their foraging on pinnipeds and small cetaceans but also take large whales, especially calves, opportunistically. Killer Whales in coastal Norway specialize on Herring (Simila et al. 1996) and in the Strait of Gibraltar on Bluefin Tuna (Cañadas and de Stephanis 2006). Some Killer Whales in New Zealand may forage selectively on rays and other elasmobranchs (Visser 1999), and in Western Australia, Killer Whales take scores of Humpback Whale calves for several months a year (Pitman et al. 2015). Off the south coast of Western Australia one group of Killer Whales forages, at least seasonally, on Beaked Whales (Wellard et al. 2106). In the Antarctic, there are five described ecotypes of Killer Whales, each of them morphologically distinct with different habitat and prey preferences. One type specializes on Minke Whales and Elephant Seals taken in open water, one eats mostly ice-associated seals taken off ice floes, another regularly preys on penguins but is probably mainly a fish-eater, another rarely seen form has only been observed depredating Patgonian Toothfish from commercial longlines, and the smallest form appears to be entirely a fish-eater (Pitman and Ensor 2003, Pitman et al. 2011, Durban et al. 2016).
Long-distance migrations have been documented for high-latitude Killer Whales. Matthews et al. (2011) satellite-tracked an individual for 5,400 km (and 38° of latitude) from the eastern Canadian Arctic into the central North Atlantic. Durban and Pitman (2012) tracked Killer Whales from the Antarctic Peninsula to southern Brazil and back – a non-stop roundtrip of almost 9,400 km, and Pitman et al. (in prep.) tracked fish-eating ecotype Killer Whales from the Ross Sea to north of New Zealand and back – a >11,000 km roundtrip covering 48° of latitude. Many Antarctic Killer Whales appear to be highly philopatric. In the Antarctic, some ecotypes readily enter areas of floe ice in search of prey, while others hunt only in open water (Pitman and Ensor 2003, Pitman and Durban 2012). Killer Whales in some areas congregate seasonally in coastal channels to forage and occasionally enter river mouths.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Use and Trade:||
During the period 1962-1977, at least 65 Killer Whales were live-captured in British Columbia and Puget Sound, Washington (Bigg 1982). In addition, from 1976-1988, 59 Killer Whales were captured alive off Iceland: eight were released, three died and 48 (average 3.7 per year) were exported (Sigurjónsson and Leatherwood 1988). Small numbers of Killer Whales have also been live-captured in Japanese waters (Fisher and Reeves 2005). Killer Whales are still in demand for display in aquariums and amusement parks, especially in China. Most recent captures and exports have been of animals in the Russian Far East (Fisher and Reeves 2005, Filatova et al. 2014). Of 21 Killer Whales known to have been live-captured in the western Sea of Okhotsk from 2012-2016, at least 13 of them were exported to China between 2013 and 2016 (Filatova et al. 2017).
Killer Whales have been exploited (i.e., deliberately hunted) in several regions. Norwegian whalers in the eastern North Atlantic took an average of 56 whales per year from 1938 to 1981. Whalers in Japan took an average of 43 per year in coastal waters from 1946 to 1981. Soviet commercial whalers took an average of 26 Killer Whales annually from 1935 to 1979, primarily in the Antarctic, and then took 916 animals in the 1979/80 Antarctic season (Dahlheim and Heyning 1999,). Killer whales are also taken in small numbers for food (or as a population control measure) in coastal fisheries in Japan, Greenland, Indonesia, and the Caribbean islands (Reeves et al. 2003).
Potential disturbance and acoustic masking effects of increasing ambient noise levels associated with shipping and other vessel traffic is a growing concern in some regions (Williams et al. 2014). Disturbance responses and masking of echolocation signals in areas with heavy ship activity have the potential to disrupt foraging behavior and reduce prey acquisition with possible population-level consequences (Williams et al. 2014, Veirs et al. 2016).
The Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska in March 1989 was strongly correlated with the subsequent loss of Killer Whales from transient and resident pods that had been seen swimming near or through oil slicks early in the spill (Dahlheim and Matkin 1994). The AT1 pod had at least 22 individuals when first censused in 1984, before the spill. Eleven individuals have been missing from this pod since 1990 and two more since 1992. Four more whales from this pod died in the early 2000s and there have been no recorded births within the pod since 1984. As of 2012, only 7 of the original 22 AT1 pod members remained. A resident Killer Whale pod affected by the oil had failed to recover 16 years after the spill (Matkin et al. 2008, 2012). Oil spills may also have indirect effects on Killer Whales by reducing prey abundance.
The Killer Whale is listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species and Appendices I and II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). The eastern North Atlantic as well as the ENP populations are included in Appendix II of CMS.
Baird, R. W. 1994. Foraging behaviour and ecology of transient killer whales (Orcinus orca). Simon Fraser University.
Baird, R.W. 2000. The killer whale: foraging specializations and group hunting. In: J. Mann, R. C. Connor, P. L. Tyack and H. Whitehead (eds), Cetacean societies: field studies of dolphins and whales, pp. 127-153. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Baird, R. W., Abrams, P. A. and Dill, L. M. 1992. Possible indirect interactions between transient and resident killer whales: implications for the evolution of foraging specializations in the genus Orcinus. Oecologia 89: 125-132.
Barlow, J. 2006. Cetacean abundance in Hawaiian waters during summer/fall 2002. Southwest Fisheries Center Administrative Report LJ-03-13: 20 pp.
Barrett-Lennard, L. G. 2000. Population structure and mating patterns of killer whales (Orcinus orca) as revealed by DNA analysis. University of British Columbia.
Baum, J. K., Myers, R. A., Kehler, D. G., Word, B., Harley, S. J. and Doherty, P. A. 2003. Collapse and conservation of shark populations in the Northwest Atlantic. Science 299: 389-392.
Berzin, A. A. and Vladimirov, V.L. 1983. A new species of killer whale (Cetacea, Delphinidae) from Antarctic waters. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 62: 287-295.
Berzin, A. A. and Vladimirov, V. L. 1989. Recent distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Sea of Okhotsk. Soviet Journal of Marine Biology 15(2): 84-90.
Bigg, M.A. 1982. An assessment of killer whale (Orcinus orca) stocks off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 32: 655-666.
Bigg, M. A., Olesiuk, P. F., Ellis, G. M., Ford, J. K. B. and Balcomb, K. C. 1990. Social organization and genealogy of resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal waters of British Columbia and Washington State. Reports of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 12: 383-405.
Black, N. A., Schulman-Janiger, A., Ternullo, R. L. and Guerrero-Ruiz, M. 1997. Killer whales of California and western Mexico: a catalog of photo-identified individuals. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS SWFSC 247: 174 pp.
Branch, T.A. and Butterworth, D.S. 2001. Estimates of abundance south of 60°S for cetacean species sighted frequently on the 1978/79 to 1997/98 IWC/IDCR-SOWER sighting surveys. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3(3): 251-270.
Cañadas, A. and de Stephanis, R. 2006. Orcinus orca. In: R. Reeves and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara (eds), The Status and Distribution of Cetaceans in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, pp. 34-38. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain.
Carretta J.V., Oleson E.M., Baker J., Weller D.W., Lang A.R., Forney K.A., Muto M.M., Hanson B., Orr A.J., H uber H., Lowry M.S., Barlow J., Moore J.E., Lynch D., Carswell L., Brownell R.L. Jr. 2016. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2015. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-561.
Dahlheim, M. E. and Heyning, J. E. 1999. Killer whale Orcinus orca (Linneaus, 1758). In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Vol. 6: The second book of dolphins and the porpoises, pp. 281-322. Academic Press.
Dahlheim, M. E. and Matkin, C. O. 1994. Assessment of injuries to Prince William Sound killer whales. In: T. R. Loughlin (ed.), Marine mammals and the Exxon Valdez, pp. 163-172. Academic Press.
Donoghue, M., Reeves, R. R. and Stone, G. S. 2003. Report of the Workshop on Interactions Between Cetaceans and Longline Fisheries.
Durban, J. W., and R. L. Pitman. 2011. Antarctic killer whales make rapid, round-trip movements to sub-tropical waters: evidence for physiological maintenance migrations? . Biology Letters 8: 274-277.
Durban, J. W., H. Fearnbach, D. G. Burrows, G. M. Ylitalo, and R. L. Pitman. 2016. Morphological and ecological evidence for two sympatric forms of Type B killer whale around the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology DOI:10.1007/s00300-016-1942-x.
Erbe, C. 2002. Underwater noise of whale-watching boats and potential effects on killer whales (Orcinus orca), based on an acoustic impact model. Marine Mammal Science 18(2): 394-418.
Esteban, R., Verborgh, P., Gauffier, P., Alarcón, D., Salazar-Sierra, J.M., Giménez, J., Foote, A.D. and de Stephanis, R. 2016. Conservation Status of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in the Strait of Gibraltar. Advances in Marine Biology 75: 141-172.
Ferguson, S. H., J. W. Higdon and E. G. Chmelnitsky. 2010. The rise of killer whales as a major Arctic predator. In: S. H. Ferguson, L. L. Loseto and M. L. Mallory (eds), . A little less Arctic: Top predators in the world’s largest northern inland sea, Hudson Bay, pp. 117-136. Springer Publishing Company, New York, NY.
Filatova, O.A. and Shpak, O.V. 2017. Update on the killer whale live captures in the Okhotsk Sea. Paper SC/67a/SM24 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee. Bled, Slovenia (unpublished).
Filatova, O.A., Shpak, O.V., Ivkovich, T.V., Borisova, E.A., Burdin, A.M. and Hoyt, E. 2014. Killer whale status and live-captures in the waters of the Russian Far East. Paper SC/65b/SM07 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee. Bled, Slovenia (unpublished).
Fisher, S.J. and Reeves, R.R. 2005. The global trade in live cetaceans: implications for conservation. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 8(4): 315-340.
Foote, A. D, P. A. Morin, R. L. Pitman, M. C. Ávila-Arcos, J. W. Durban, A. van Helden, M.-H. S. Sinding, T. P. Gilbert. 2013. Mitogenomic insights into a recently described and rarely observed killer whale morphotype. Polar Biology DOI 10.1007/s00300-013-1354-0.
Ford, J. K. B. 2002. Killer whale Orcinus orca. In: W. F. Perrin;B. Wursig;J. G. M. Thewissen (ed.), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 669-676. Academic Press.
Ford, J.K.B. 2009. Killer whale Orcinus orca. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Second Edition, pp. 650-657. Elsevier.
Ford, J. K. B. and Ellis, G. M. 1999. Transients: Mammal-hunting killer whales of British Columbia, Washington, and southeastern Alaska. Univ. British Columbia Press.
Ford, J. K. B. and Ellis, G. M. 2006. Selective foraging by fish-eating killer whales Orcinus orca in British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 316: 185-199.
Ford, J.K.B., and Ellis, G.M. 2014. You are what you eat: ecological specializations and their influence on the social organization and behaviour of killer whales. In: Yamagiwa, J., and L. Karczmarski (eds), Primates and Cetaceans: Field Research and Conservation of Complex Mammalian Societies, pp. 75-98. Springer, New York, NY.
Ford, J. K. B., Ellis, G. M. and Balcomb, K. C. 2000. Killer Whales. Second edition. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Ford, J.K.B., Ellis, G.M., and Durban, J.W. 2007. An Assessment of the Potential for Recovery of West Coast Transient Killer Whales Using Coastal Waters of British Columbia. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2007/088. iv + 34 pp..
Ford, J.K.B, Ellis, G.M., Olesiuk, P.F., and Balcomb, K.C. 2010. Linking killer whale survival and prey abundance: food limitation in the oceans’ apex predator? . Biology Letters 6: 139-142.
Ford, J.K.B, Stredulinsky, E.H., Ellis, G.M., Durban, J.W., and Pilkington, J.F. 2014. Offshore killer whales in Canadian Pacific waters: distribution, seasonality, foraging ecology, population Status and potential for recovery. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2014/088. vii + 55 p..
Forney, K. A. and Wade, P. 2006. Worldwide distribution and abundance of killer whales. In: J. A. Estes, R. L. Brownell, Jr., D. P. DeMaster, D. F. Doak and T. M. Williams (eds), Whales, Whaling and Ocean Ecosystems, pp. 145-162. University of California Press.
George, J.C., Sheffield, G., Reed, D.J., Tudor, B. and Suydam, R. 2015. Evidence of injuries from line entanglements, killer whales and ship strikes on Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas bowhead whales. IWC Scientific Committee SC/66a/HIM10..
Guerrero-Ruiz, M., Gendron, D. and Urban, J. R. 1998. Distribution, movements and communities of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 48: 537-543.
Gunnlaugsson, T. and Sigurjónsson, J. 1990. NASS-87: Estimation of whale abundance based on observations made onboard Icelandic and Faroese survey vessels. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 40: 571-580.
Hammond, P. S. 1984. Abundance of killer whales in Antarctic areas II, III, IV and V. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 34: 543-548.
Higdon, J.W., Hauser, D.D.W. and Ferguson, S.H. 2012. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Canadian Arctic: distribution, prey items, group sizes, and seasonality. Marine Mammal Science 28: E93-E109.
Hoelzel, A. R. and Dover, G. A. 1991. Genetic differentiation between sympatric killer whale populations. Heredity 66: 191-195.
Hoelzel, A. R., Dahlheim, M. and Stern, S. J. 1998. Low genetic variation among killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the eastern North Pacific and genetic differentiation between foraging specialists. Journal of Heredity 89: 121-128.
Iñíguez, M. A. 2001. Seasonal distribution of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Aquatic Mammals 27(2): 154-161.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H., Bjorndal, K. A., Botsford, L. W., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J. A., Hughes, T. P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C. B., Lenihan, H. S., Pandolfi, J. M., Peterson, C. H., Steneck, R. S., Tegner, M. J. and Warner, R. R. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-637.
Jefferson, T. A., Leatherwood, S. and Webber, M. A. 1993. Marine Mammals of the World: FAO Species Identification Guide. United Nation Environment Programme and Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN.
Jepson, P.D., Deaville, R., Barber, J.L., Aguilar, A., Borrell, A. Murphy, S. et al. 2016. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters. Scientific Reports 6:18573. DOI: 10.1038/srep18573.
Kasamatsu, F. and Joyce, G. G. 1995. Current status of odontocetes in the Antarctic. Antarctic Science 7: 365-379.
Keith, M., Bester, M. N., Bartlett, P. A. and Baker, D. 2001. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) at Marion Island, Southern Ocean. African Zoology 36: 163-175.
Krahn, M. M., Ford, M. J., Perrin, W. F., Wade, P. R., Angliss, R. P., Hanson, M. B., Taylor, B. L., Ylitalo, G. M., Dahlheim, M. E., Stein, J. E. and Waples, R. S. 2004. 2004 status review of southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC 73: 133.
Kuningas, S., Similä, T. and Hammond, P.S. 2014. Population size, survival and reproductive rates of northern Norwegian killer whales (Orcinus orca) in 1986–2003. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94: 1277-1291.
Learmonth, J.A., Macleod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Crick, H.Q.P. and Robinson, R.A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.
López, J. C. and López, D. 1985. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) of Patagonia, and their behavior of intentional stranding while hunting nearshore. Journal of Mammalogy 66: 181-183.
Matkin, C. O., Ellis, G. M., Saulitis, E., Barrett-Lennard, L. G. and Matkin, D. 1999. Killer Whales of Southern Alaska. North Gulf Oceanic Society, Homer, Alaska, USA.
Matkin, C.O., Saulitis, E.L., Ellis, G.M., Olesiuk, P. and Rice, S.D. 2008. Ongoing population-level impacts on killer whales Orcinus orca following the ‘Exxon Valdez’oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Ecology Progress Series 356: 269-281.
Matkin, C.O., Testa, J.W., Ellis, G.M. and Saulitis, E.L. 2014. Life history and population dynamics of southern Alaska resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). Marine Mammal Science 30(2): 460-479.
Matthews, C. J. D., Luque, S. P., Petersen, S. D., Andrews, R. D., Ferguson, S. H. 2011. Satellite tagging of a killer whale (Orcinus orca) in the eastern Canadian Arctic documents ice avoidance and rapid, long-distance movement into the North Atlantic. Polar Biology 34: 1091-1096.
Mikhalev, Y. A., Ivashin, M. V., Sausin, V. P. and Zelemaya, F. E. 1981. The distribution and biology of killer whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 31: 551-566.
Miyashita, T. 1993. Abundance of dolphin stocks in the western North Pacific taken by the Japanese drive fishery. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 43: 417-437.
Mongillo, T.M., Holmes, E.E., Noren, D.P., VanBlaricom, G.R., Punt, A.E., Neill, S.M., Ylitalo, G.M., Hanson, M.B. and Ross, P.S. 2012. Predicted polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in southern resident killer whales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 453: 236-277.
Muto, M.M., Helker, V.T., Angliss, R.P. et al. 2016. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2015. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-323.
Myers, R. A. and Worm, B. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423: 280-283.
Noren, D.P., Johnson, A.H., Rehder, D. and Larson, A. 2009. Close approaches by vessels elicit surface active behaviors by southern resident killer whales. Endangered Species Research 8: 179-192.
Ohsumi, S. 1981. Distribution and abundance of killer whales in the southern Hemisphere. International Whaling Commission.
Øien, N. 1990. Sightings surveys in the northeast Atlantic in July 1988: distribution and abundance of cetaceans. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 40: 499-511.
Pitman, R. L. and Ensor, P. 2003. Three forms of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Antarctic waters. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5: 131-139.
Pitman, R. L., and J. W. Durban. 2012. Cooperative hunting behavior, prey selectivity and prey handling by pack ice killer whales (Orcinus orca), type B, in Antarctic Peninsula waters. Marine Mammal Science 28: 16-36.
Pitman, R. L., H. Fearnbach, and J. W. Durban. Submitted. Abundance and population status of Ross Sea killer whales (Orcinus orca, type C) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Evidence for impact by commercial fishing? Polar Biology.
Pitman, R. L., J. A. Totterdell, H. Fearnbach, L. T. Ballance, J. W. Durban, and H. Kemps. 2015. Whale killers: prevalence and ecological implications of killer whale predation on humpback whale calves off Western Australia. Marine Mammal Science 31: 629-657.
Pitman, R. L., J. W. Durban, M. Greenfelder, C. Guinet, M. Jorgensen, P. A. Olson, J. Plana, P. Tixier, J. R. Towers. 2011. Observations of a distinctive morphotype of killer whale (Orcinus orca), type D, from subantarctic waters. Polar Biology 34: 303-306.
Pitman, R. L., Perryman, W. L., Leroi, D. and Eilers, E. 2007. A dwarf form of killer whale in Antarctica. Journal of Mammalogy 88: 43-48.
Poncelet, E., Barbraud, C. & Guinet, C. 2010. Population dynamics of killer whales in Crozet archipelago, southern Indian Ocean: a mark recapture study from 1977 to 2002. J. Cet. Res. Manag 11: 41-48.
Reeves, R. R., Perrin, W. F., Taylor, B. L., Baker, C. S. and Mesnick, S. L. 2004. Report of the Workshop on Shortcomings of Cetacean Taxonomy in Relation to Needs of Conservation and Management, April 30 - May 2, 2004, La Jolla, California. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC 363: 94 pp.
Reeves, R.R., Smith, B.D., Crespo, E.A. and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2003. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Reisinger, R.R., de Bruyn, P.J.N., and Bester, M.N. 2011. Abundance estimates of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island. Aquatic Biology 12: 177–185. DOI: 10.3354/ab00340.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ross, P. S., Ellis, G. M., Ikonomou, M. G., Barrett-Lennard, L. G. and Addison, R. F. 2000. High PCB concentrations in free-ranging Pacific killer whales, Orcinus orca: effects of age, sex and dietary preference. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40: 504-515.
Secchi, E. R., Dalla Rosa, L., Kinas, P. G., Santos, M. C. O., Zerbini, A. N., Bassoi, M. and Moreno, I. B. 2002. Encounter rates of whales around the Antarctic Peninsula with special reference to humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the Gerlache Strait: 1997/98 to 1999/2000. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 47: 571-578.
Sigurjónsson, J. and Leatherwood, S. 1988. The Icelandic live-capture fishery for killer whales, 1976-1988. Rit Fiskideildar 11: 307-316.
Sigurjónsson, J., Gunnlaugsson, T. and Payne, M. 1989. Shipboard sighting surveys in Icelandic and adjacent waters June-July 1987. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 39: 395-409.
Simila, T., Holst, J. C. and Christensen, I. 1996. Occurrence and diet of killer whales in northern Norway: seasonal patterns relative to the distribution and abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 769-779.
Stevens, T. A., Duffield, D. A., Asper, E. D., Hewlett, K. G., Bolz, A., Gage, L. J. and Bossart, G. D. 1989. Preliminary findings of restriction fragment differences in mitochondrial DNA among killer whales (Orcinus orca). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2592-2595.
Taylor, B.L., Baird, R., Barlow, J., Dawson, S.M., Ford, J., Mead, J.G., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Wade, P. & Pitman, R.L. 2013. Orcinus orca. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T15421A44220470.en. . (Accessed: 10 June 2017).
Taylor, B.L., Chivers, S.J., Larese, J. and Perrin, W.F. 2007. Generation length and percent mature estimates for IUCN assessments of Cetaceans. NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, California. Administrative Report LJ-07-01.
Towers, J.R., Ellis, G.M., and Ford, J.K.B. 2012. Photo-identification catalogue of Bigg’s (transient) killer whales from coastal waters of British Columbia, northern Washington, and southeastern Alaska. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1241: v + 127 p. .
Towers, J.R., Ellis, G.M., and Ford, J.K.B. 2015. Photo-identification catalogue and status of the northern resident killer whale population in 2014. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 3139: vi + 75 p.
Veirs, S., Veirs, V. and Wood, J.D. 2016. Ship noise extends to frequencies used for echolocation by endangered killer whales. Peer J, 4: e1657.
Visser, I. N. 1999. Antarctic orca in New Zealand waters? New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33: 515-520.
Visser, I. N. 2000. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) interactions with longline fisheries in New Zealand waters. Aquatic Mammals 26(3): 241-252.
Wade, P. R. and Gerrodette, T. 1993. Estimates of cetacean abundance and distribution in the eastern tropical Pacific. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 43: 477-493.
Ward, E.J., Holmes, E.E. and Balcomb, K.C. 2009. Quantifying the effects of prey abundance on killer whale reproduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 632-640.
Waring, G. T., Josephson, E., Fairfield, C. P. and Maze-Foley, K. (eds). 2006. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments - 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE, pp. 346 pp..
Wellard, R., Lightbody, K., Fouda, L., Blewitt, M., Riggs, D. and Erbe, C. 2016. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) predation on beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia. PLoS One: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166670.
Wellard, R., Lightbody, K., Fouda, L., Blewitt, M., Riggs, D. and Erbe, C. 2016. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia. PLoS ONE DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166670.
Williams, R., Erbe, C., Ashe, E., Beerman, A. and Smith, J. 2014. Severity of killer whale behavioral responses to ship noise: a dose–response study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 79: 254-260.
Williams, R., Lusseau, D. and Hammond, P. S. 2006. Estimating relative energetic costs of human disturbance to killer whales (Orcinus orca). Biological Conservation 133: 301-311.
Williams, R., Trites, A. W. and Bain, D. E. 2002. Behavioural responses of killer whales (Orcinus orca) to whale-watching boats: opportunistic observations and experimental approaches. Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 255-270.
Yano, K. and Dahlheim, M. E. 1995. Killer whale, Orcinus orca, depredation on longline catches of bottomfish in the southeastern Bering Sea and adjacent waters. Fishery Bulletin 93: 355-372.
Zerbini, A. N., Waite, J. M., Durban, J. W., LeDuc, R. Dahlheim, M. E. and Wade, P. R. 2007. Estimating abundance of killer whales in the nearshore waters of the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands using line transect sampling. Marine Biology 150(5): 1033-1045.
|Citation:||Reeves, R., Pitman, R.L. & Ford, J.K.B. 2017. Orcinus orca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T15421A50368125.Downloaded on 21 June 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|