|Scientific Name:||Orconectes rusticus|
|Species Authority:||(Girard, 1852)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Adams, S., Schuster, G.A. & Taylor, C.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B. & Richman, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Livingston, F., Livingston, F., Soulsby, A.-M., Batchelor, A., Dyer, E., Whitton, F., Milligan, H.T., Smith, J., Lutz, M.L., De Silva, R., McGuinness, S., Kasthala, G., Jopling, B., Sullivan, K. & Cryer, G.|
Orconectes rusticus has been assessed as Least Concern (LC). This species of crayfish is highly invasive, a habitat generalist and consistently outcompetes other species of Orconectes outside its native range. At present, there are no known threats to this species.
This species is native to the Ohio river system, which spreads through the states of: Ohio, Kentucky, Michigan, and Indiana(Taylor et al. 2005). It has an introduced range which includes: Ontario, Illinois, Tennessee, Missouri, West Virginia, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire and New Mexico (Taylor et al. 2005).
Thus, the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of this species has been estimated to exceed 604,000 km2.
Native:Canada (Ontario - Introduced); United States (Connecticut - Introduced, Illinois - Introduced, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine - Introduced, Massachusetts - Introduced, Michigan, Minnesota - Introduced, New Hampshire - Introduced, New Jersey - Introduced, New Mexico - Introduced, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee - Introduced, Vermont - Introduced, West Virginia - Present - Origin Uncertain, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is a common species and has become the dominant crayfish in much of its range in recent years (Kulhmann 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a generalist species that inhabits permanent streams and lakes with a range of substrates such as clay, silt, sand and gravel (Thoma and Jezerinac 2000, Taylor et al. 2005). It prefers areas which consists of rocks, logs or other debris which they use to construct shallow excavations underneath (Taylor et al. 2005). It has been shown to breed very early in spring (March - April) before most other crayfish species (Taylor et al. 2005). Juveniles feed heavily on benthic invertebrates and, in some parts of its range, it has been estimated that this species can consume twice as much food as the native and similarly-sized Virile Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) because of a higher metabolic rate. This severely increases competition between the two species (Taylor et al. 2005). In addition, this species is tolerant to pollution such as septic tank discharge and organic pollution (Jezerinac et al. 1995).
This species has a high rate of reproduction (Taylor et al. 2005). In Ontario alone it has displaced the local species in numerous waterways throughout the region (Taylor et al. 2005).
Not only is it a larger species, but its breeding patterns also account for its for its dominance due to:earlier breeding season, higher fecundity, and faster larval and juvenile development (Taylor et al. 2005).
There are no major threats to this species currently known.
This species has been given the heritage rank of G5 by NatureServe (Taylor et al. 2007, NatureServe 2009) and Currently Stable by the American Fisheries Society (Taylor et al. 2007).
Fetzner, J.W. 2008. Crayfish Taxonomy Browser. Available at: http://iz.carnegiemnh.org/crayfish/NewAstacidea/infraorder.asp?io=Astacidea. (Accessed: 11.10.08).
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Jezerinac, R.F., Stocker, G.W. and Tarter, D.C. 1995. The Crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) of West Virginia. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey, new series 10(1): 164-171.
Kuhlmann, M.L. 2008. Do Invading Rusty Crayfish Interfere with Reproduction in a Native Congener? Journal of Crustacean Biology 28(3): 461-465.
NatureServe. 2009. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Internet
Puth L.M. and T.F.H. Allen. 2004. Potential corridors for the rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, in northern Wisconsin (USA) Lakes: lessons for exotic invasions. Landscape Ecology 20: 567?577.
Taylor, R.M., Hamr. P. and Karstaad, A. 2005. Crayfishes. In: G. Winterton (ed.), The Comprehensive Bait Guide for Eastern Canada, the Great Lakes Region and Northeastern United States, pp. 222-317. University of Toronto, Toronto.
Thoma, R.F. and Jezerinac, R. F. 2000. Ohio Crafish and Shrimp Atlas. Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contribution 7: 1-28.
|Citation:||Adams, S., Schuster, G.A. & Taylor, C.A. 2010. Orconectes rusticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 September 2014.|