|Scientific Name:||Pteronotropis welaka|
|Species Authority:||(Evermann & Kendall, 1898)|
Notropis welaka Evermann & Kendall, 1898
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its area of occupancy is unknown but may be less than 2,000 sq km, number of locations exceeds 10 but distribution appears to be severely fragmented, and habitat quantity and quality, and species' distribution and abundance, are subject to ongoing declines.
|Range Description:||This species' range includes Gulf Coast drainages, mostly below the Fall Line, from Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi, to Apalachicola River, Florida and Georgia; and St. Johns River drainage, Florida (Page and Burr 2011). This species is apparently absent from the Escatawpa River system and from the Perdido River in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Spotty distribution in the Chipola, Choctawhatchee, Yellow, Escambia, Alabama, Cahaba, and Tombigbee river systems (Boschung and Mayden 2004, Smith et al. 2008). Overall, the species occurs primarily in small, localized populations, and its distribution appears to be severely fragmented (as defined by IUCN).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations (as defined by IUCN). Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 25 collection sites in Alabama. Smith et al. (2008) listed 25 historical collection sites in Alabama, and in 2007 they collected Bluenose Shiners in seven of these sites. Ross (2001) mapped approximately 30 collection sites in Mississippi. Gilbert (in Lee et al. 1980) mapped at least 18 collection sites in Florida.
Total adult population size is unknown. This species is relatively difficult to collect, so it may be more common than available information indicates.
Populations have been lost, but the overall degree of decline is uncertain. Ross (2001) noted that several local populations in Mississippi had disappeared within the last decade.
Preliminary data suggest that this species is much rarer in the western panhandle of Florida than originally presumed. It has apparently declined in the upper St. Johns River (based on multiple collections at known sites) (Hipes et al. 2001).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are slowly declining. Boschung and Mayden (2004) noted the "ever decreasing" habitat in Alabama.
This species may be abundant at a location only to disappear for years at a time (Hipes et al. 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes deep, slow-moving, coastal creeks and small to medium rivers of varying clarity and usually with silty bottoms, often heavily choked with brush and vegetation (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). These shiners seem to prefer deep pools and backwaters (often 1–2 m) to more shallow areas.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
The somewhat fragmented distribution makes local populations vulnerable to catastrophic events (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Removal of aquatic vegetation in small headwater streams where small, isolated populations occur can have devastating effects on these populations (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
Ross (2001) noted that population losses have occurred where streamside vegetation has been removed, or where agricultural or urban development results in stream sedimentation. The shiners' reliance on deep pools of small headwater streams makes them particularly sensitive to such localized impacts (Ross 2001). Population are susceptible to depletion by excessive collection by aquarists (Ross 2001).
This species was regarded as vulnerable by Warren et al. (2000) and Jelks et al. (2008), based on present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range,
|Conservation Actions:||The main conservation need is habitat protection.|
Amemiya, C.T. and Gold, J.R. 1990. Chromosome NOR phenotypes of seven species of North American Cyprinidae, with comments on cytosystematic relationships of the Notropis volucellus nspecies-group, Opsopoeodus emiliae, and the genus Pteronotropis. Copeia 1990: 68-78.
Boschung, H.T. and Mayden, R.L. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Dimmick, W.W. 1987. Phylogenetic relationships of Notopris hubbsi, N. welaka, and N. emiliae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1987: 316-325.
Douglas, N.H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Gilbert, C.R. (ed.). 1992. Volume II. Fishes. In: R.E. Ashton, Jr. (ed.), Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, pp. xl + 247. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Hipes, Dan, Jackson, D.J., Nesmith, K., Printiss, D. and Brandt, K. 2001. Field guide to the rare animals of Florida. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, Florida.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Mayden, R.L. 1989. Phylogenetic studies of North American minnows, with emphasis on the genus Cyprinella (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 80: 1-189.
Mettee, M.F., O'Neil, P.E. and Pierson, J.M. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society.
Ross, S.T. and Brenneman, W.M. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks, Jackson, Mississippi.
Ross, S.T. (with W.M. Brennaman, W.T. Slack, M.T. O'Connell, and T.L. Peterson). 2001. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.
Simons, A.M., Knott, K.E. and Mayden, R.L. 2000. Assessment of monophyly of the minnow genus Pteronotropis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Copeia 2000: 1068-1075.
Smith, J.B., Shepard, T.E., O'Neil, P.E., Wynn, E.A. and Johnson, C.C. 2008. Status survey of the bluenose shiner (Pteronotropis welaka), with notes on the occurrence of the ironcolor shiner (Notropis chaybaeus), in Alabama, 2007. Prepared in cooperation with Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Pteronotropis welaka. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 March 2015.|
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