Neotragus batesi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Neotragus batesi de Winton, 1903
Common Name(s):
English Bates' Pygmy Antelope, Dwarf Antelope
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies are recognized, based on contrasts in pelage and leg colour: N. batesi batesi in the west, and N. b. harrisoni in northeastern The Democratic Republic of the Congo (Feer 2013). These have not been confirmed by genetic evidence. Only the species is assessed here.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
The total population was estimated at ca. 219,000, and is generally considered to be stable. The conservation status of Bates’ Pygmy Antelope should not change as long as extensive areas of the Central African equatorial forests remain sparsely settled, but the prospect of rapid human colonization of these areas during the next few decades could result in greatly increased pressures of hunting and forest destruction. Currently not considered to be close meeting the thresholds for a threatened category and it is confirmed Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Bates's Pygmy Antelope is found in three disjunct regions: southeastern Nigeria, east of the Niger River to the Cross River; Cameroon (south of the Sanaga River) to southwestern Central African Republic (west of the Sangha River), Gabon, and northwestern and southwestern Republic of Congo; and northeastern DR Congo (north and east of the Congo-Lualaba), extending marginally into southwestern Uganda (Feer 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Nigeria; Uganda
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species can reach very high densities within localized areas of favourable habitat, e.g., >35.0/km² in an area of coffee and cocoa plantations bordered by secondary forest in northeastern Gabon (Feer 1979). Typical densities over more extensive areas are in the order 1.5-2.2/km² (East 1999, and references therein).

East (1999) estimated the total population at 219,000. The population trend is stable over extensive parts of its range where human population densities are low, but shows a tendency to decrease in areas where hunting pressures are very high.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:An inhabitant of moist lowland forest, this species prefers dense, low undergrowth along rivers, tree falls within mature forests, areas regenerating after logging or cultivation, road sides, village-gardens and plantations (Feer 2013). They are folivorous, and most often solitary.
Generation Length (years):4.3

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although hunted for bushmeat, they are not commonly found in urban markets (Colyn et al. 1987). The species’ dependence on secondary growth and ability to utilize plantations should enable it to withstand degradation of primary forests better than species which are dependent on undisturbed forests. Its long-term survival may nevertheless become increasingly dependent on protected areas, especially with increasing pressures of hunting, logging and clearing for cultivation in central African forests (Feer 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Major protected area populations include those in Dja and Lobeke (Cameroon), Monte Alén (Equatorial Guinea), Dzanga-Sangha (Central African Republic), Odzala (Congo), Lope (Gabon), Okapi Faunal Reserve, Maiko and Kahuzi-Biega (Congo-DRC), and Kibale and Semliki (Uganda). These reserves receive very unequal levels of protection and management (Feer 2013).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Colyn, M., Dudu, A. and Mbaelele, M. 1987. Exploitation du petit et moyen gibier des forêts ombrophiles du Zaire. Nature et Faune 3: 22-39.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Feer, F. 1979. Observations écologiques sur le Néotrague de Bates (Neotragus batesi de Winton, 1903, Artiodactyle, Ruminant, Bovidé) du Nord-Est du Gabon. Revue d’Ecologie (La Terre et La Vie) 33: 159-239.

Feer, F. 2013. Neotragus batesi Bates's Pygmy Antelope. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Neotragus batesi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14603A50190946. . Downloaded on 25 September 2018.
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