Neopteryx frosti 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Neopteryx frosti Hayman, 1946
Common Name(s):
English Small-toothed Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-06-01
Assessor(s): Tsang, S.M.
Reviewer(s): Mildenstein, T.
Contributor(s): Hutson, A.M., Suyanto, A. & Helgen, K.
Neopteryx frosti is assessed as Endangered under criterion C1. The species is estimated to have fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and is projected to undergo a 20% reduction over two generations (12 years as per Pacifici et al. 2013) due to continued habitat decline and intense hunting. It is known from only two widely separated localities and intensive survey work has not recorded this species else where, and both localities are within primary forest, which is declining rapidly on Sulawesi. The species is also present in bushmeat markets, though hunters have reported that they are increasingly rare.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This fruit bat is known only from two localities on Sulawesi, Indonesia at 225 and 1,000 m asl, despite extensive surveying. The species has not been caught in any of these localities since 1991. It is possibly extinct from Central Sulawesi, as that area has been subject to a the high level of habitat disturbance and logging.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a rare species, known from only seven specimens (Bergmans and Rozendaal 1988, Bergmans 2001). Extensive mist-netting efforts have failed to find the species, although appropriate survey methods may not have been used (the only mist-netted specimens came from above the canopy). Hunters interviewed in bushmeat markets have expressed that this species has become even rarer in recent years, and none were found from recent market surveys (Sheherazade, pers. comm).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2000-2500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits primary forest. Two specimens were mist-netted high over a river but there is no other information known.
Generation Length (years):6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is present in bushmeat markets.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation due to logging and expanding agriculture is a major threat, as the species prefers to roost in primary forests. Hunting of what appears to be a rare and restricted range species is also a threat, four of the seven known specimens are from markets.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species has been recorded from Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Bergmans, W. 2001. Notes on distribution and taxonomy of Australasian bats. I. Pteropodinae and Nyctimeninae (Mammalia, Megachiroptera, Pteropodidae). Beaufortia 8(51): 119-152.

Bergmans, W. and Rozendaal, F. G. 1988. Notes on a collection of fruit bats from Sulawesi and some off-lying islands (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). Zoologische Verhandelingen 248: 1-14.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Citation: Tsang, S.M. 2016. Neopteryx frosti (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14560A115122474. . Downloaded on 23 May 2018.
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