|Scientific Name:||Naemorhedus griseus|
|Species Authority:||Milne-Edwards, 1871|
Naemorhedus caudatus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) subspecies griseus
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies are recognized by Wilson and Reeder (2005): N. g. griseus and N. g. evansi (formerly classified as N. caudatus evansi, Shackleton 1997). Geographic distribution of the two subspecies appears to be uncertain; thus both are considered together here.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2d ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Duckworth, J.W., Steinmetz, R. & Rattanawat Chaiyarat|
|Reviewer/s:||Harris, R. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (Caprinae Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because this species is believed to be in significant decline (probably at a rate of mores than 30% over three generations, taken at 21 years) because of both over-hunting taking place within its range.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Myanmar (western and eastern), most of China (except the far north and west), northeastern India (east and south of the Brahmaputra), northwestern Thailand, and extreme northern Viet Nam (Lovari 1997). There have been suggestions that this species is found in central Lao PDR (Shackleton 1997), however, this information is incorrect (Duckworth et al. 1999; W. Duckworth, pers comm. 2006). It might possibly occur in extreme northern Lao PDR, and records from Bangladesh require confirmation. In Thailand, it is restricted to hills along the Ping River, including on Doi Mon Chong (1,600 to 1,970 m), Northern Tak Province, to the west of the Bhumibol Dam (Nabhitabhata, 1983; Lovari 1997). The southern extent of this species in Myanmar is also uncertain (Than Zaw pers. comm. 2006).
The long-tailed goral is a widespread species found through much of southern, southeastern and central China, in Gansu and Shaanxi, Sichuan, and western Hubei (Smith and Xie 2008). It also occurs in the adjacent mountain ranges of Defan and Weining in northwestern Guizhou, and in Guinan in eastern Qinghai (Li et al., 1989). Isolated populations are scattered through the subtropical deciduous forests of the low mountains and hills of southern Shaanxi, southern Anhui, south of Zhejiang and north of Fujian, in eastern Jiangxi, Hubei, Hunan to the northern part of Guangdong and most parts of Guizhou and eastern Guangxi (Wang et al. 1997). Long-tailed gorals are also found from the Helan mountains (Ningxia) to include the Luliang and Heng mountain ranges of northern Shanxi, and the Daqinshan north of Hohhot (Inner Mongolia), and east as far as the mountain regions of north Hebei (north and west of Beijing) and the Taiyue mountains south of Yuci (Shanxi).
Native:China; India; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There has been no estimate of total population size, but numbers are believed to be declining in much of its range due to hunting. There is a single local density estimate of ca. 5 goral/km² in Om-Koi Wildlife Sanctuary on Doi Mon Chong mountain, Tak Province, Thailand (Lovari and Apollonio, 1993). It is probably reasonably numerous in places where conservation is effective, though there are few such places through most of its range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species inhabits steep areas and plateaus in mountainous areas and will sometimes use subtropical mixed forests and evergreen-deciduous forests near cliffs, but primarily stays within rugged rocky terrain. Gorals are diurnal, and are most active in the early morning and late evening, but can be active throughout on overcast days. Group home range size is typically around 40 hectares, with males occupying marked territories of 22-25 hectares durring the mating season. They typically live in small groups of 4-12 individuals, with older males usually solitary. The diet consists of grasses, leaves, twigs, and nuts. The gestation length is 170-218 days, with single births. Males and females reach sexual maturity at approximately three years, with a lifespan of up to 15 years or so.|
|Major Threat(s):||The decline in numbers is believed to be due to mainly to over-hunting, and goral are frequently hunted or snared by the local people for meat, fur and medicines. These animals are hunted in the northern portion of Myanmar for their pelts (Than Zaw pers. comm. 2006). The species used to be hunted in Thailand, but not so much now. Populations in Thailand are all within protected areas and appear to be stable (A. Pattanavibool, R. Steinmetz pers. comm. 2006). It is not so much affected by habitat loss as it is largely confined to rugged, inaccessible areas. However, competition with livestock might be a problem in some places.|
The Chinese goral is listed on Appendix I of CITES
In China, the taxon is a Class II protected species. Protection is not very effective because local people are mostly ignorant of the legislation. It is probably occurs in many protected areas within Yunnan, Guizhou, and eastern Tibet, but the degree of actual protection is unknown. The conservation priority for China is to control hunting so that populations can recover.
Populations in Thailand are all within protected areas and appear to be stable (A. Pattanavibool, R. Steinmetz pers. comm. 2006). In Thailand, goral is believed to occur in only three protected areas: Doi Chiang Dao, Om-Koi/Mae Tun, and Salawin Wildlife Sanctuaries. Conservation measures proposed for Thailand: It is critical to determine the status and distribution of goral immediately so that steps can be taken to protect the remaining populations.
Some populations are within protected areas within Myanmar where for the most past they are not heavily hunted (Than Zaw pers. comm.2006). However, in the 1980s, poaching was common in the proposed Kyaukpandaung National Park (Blower, 1985b; FAO, 1983a), and also in the proposed Natma Taung National Park (Blower, 1985b; FAO, 1983b). It probably is found in Tamanthi, or Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuaries and in the proposed Alaungdaw Kathpa Wildlife Sanctuary.
In India is presumably occurs in several protected areas, including the Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh. It is a priority to carry out more surveys for this species in northeastern India to assess conservation needs.
The taxonomic validity of this species, and its relationship to other species in the genus Naemorhedus needs to be assessed.
Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.
Fox, J. and Johnsingh, J. T. L. 1997. India. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 215-231. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Lovari, S. 1997. Thailand. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae, pp. 287-291. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Lovari, S. and Apollonio, M. 1993. Notes on the ecology of gorals Nemorhaedus spp. in two areas of South Asia. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 48: 365-374.
Nabhitabhata, J. 1983. The goral on Doi Mon Chong. Conservation News (Thailand) 5: 11-12.
Shackleton, D. M. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Smith, A. and Xie, Y. 2008. The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
|Citation:||Duckworth, J.W., Steinmetz, R. & Rattanawat Chaiyarat 2008. Naemorhedus griseus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|
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