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Naemorhedus baileyi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Naemorhedus baileyi
Species Authority: Pocock, 1914
Common Name/s:
English Red Goral

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Duckworth, J.W. & MacKinnon, J.
Reviewer/s: Harris, R. & Festa-Bianchet, M. (Caprinae Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered because its population size is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, there is probably continuing decline in the number of mature individuals due to over hunting, and no subpopulation is likely to contain more than 1,000 mature individuals.
History:
1996 Vulnerable
1990 Vulnerable (IUCN 1990)
1988 Vulnerable (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in northern Myanmar, China (southeast Tibet and Yunnan), and northeast India (Arunachal Pradesh) (Grubb, 2005, Singh, 2002, Mishra, 2006). This species is found at higher elevations than most gorals, between altitudes of 2,000-4,500 m (Zhang 1987; Rabinowitz 1999; Smith and Xie 2008).

According to Shackelton (1997), this species, sometimes referred to as N. cranbrooki, has a narrow distribution, and inhabits the largest remaining native coniferous forests up to 4,000 m in the eastern Himalayas of southeastern Tibet. According to summer surveys carried out in this region from 1987 to 1988 (Zhang 1987, Zhang, 1991) the distribution area is between about 27° to 29°30'N and 96° to 98°E, in four prefectures of Tibet (Bomi, Nying, Mainling and Medog; Zhang 1987). This current range in southeastern Tibet is believed to be reduced considerably and is now confined to an area of less than 8,000 km² in Tongmai (Bomi), Dongjiu, Pelung, and Bayu (Linzhi) and Medog, around the junction of the Pelung Zangbo and Yarlung Zangbo rivers (Feng et al. 1986; Zhang 1987; 1991). This goral is also known to occur in Gongshan county, southeastern Yunnan (Liu 1987; Wang 2003).

In Myanmar the species is confined to the northernmost part of the country, and in India it is restricted to Arunachal Pradesh, near the Chinese and Myanmar borders.
Countries:
Native:
China; India; Myanmar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Random sampling during summer field studies from 1987 to 1988 provided some information on the red goral population in Xizang (Zhang, 1991). Total numbers were estimated to be 810 to 1,370 individuals, distributed as follows: 120 to 180 for Linzhi, 60 to 220 for Bomi, 320 to 380 for Zayu, 220 to 450 Medog, and 90 to 140 for Manling (Zhang, 1991). Wang (1998) suggested that total numbers in China were less than 1,500. The species is rare in Myanmar because of a naturally restricted range, compounded by the effects of trade-driven hunting (Than Zaw and W. Duckworth pers. comm., 2006). There is little information on its status in India. Given its small range, the total population size is probably less than 10,000 mature individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The red goral inhabits forest, ragged crags, scrub and meadows from 2,000 m up to 4,500 m in summer (Smith and Xie 2008). The elevation and range where red goral is found supports one of the largest tracts of primary coniferous woodland in Asia, which along with its rocky outcrops, form the species' primary habitat (Zhang, 1987; Wang 1998; Sheng et al., 1999). Red gorals migrate seasonally, moving in the winter (typically, November through to March) to lower-elevation mixed deciduous and coniferous forests or glades and thickets below the snow line (Zhang, 1987; Wang 1998; Sheng et al., 1999; Rabinowitz, 1999). Gorals are diurnal, and are most active in the early morning and late evening, but can be active throughout on overcast days (Sheng et al., 1999). Group home range size is typically around 40 hectares, with males occupying marked territories of 22-25 hectares during the mating season. This species is typically solitary, but occasionally the animals are seen in small groups of 2-3, typically a female and her offspring, sometimes accompanied with a male, or a female with her offspring from the previous two years (Zhang, 1987; Sheng et al., 1999). Mates in December, and young are born in June after a six month pregnancy (Smith and Xie 2008). The diet consists primarily of lichens; however, it also feeds on grasses and weeds as well as tender stems, leaves, and twigs from shrubs, although no long term studies on diet have been done (Zhang, 1987; Sheng et al., 1999). The gestation length is 170-218 days, with single births. Males and females reach sexual maturity at approximately three years, with a lifespan of up to 15 years or so.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting and habitat loss caused by rapid forestry expansion are the major threats. Since the opening up of and the economic reforms in Tibet, hunting has had a major negative impact on the population of red goral. This is due primarily to the increasing number of immigrants and modern hunting weapons. It was said that in the three provinces of Pelung, Dingjiu and Bayu in the Linzhi county, only about 150 individuals of this species had been hunted annually before the early 1980s. Although a hunting ban was in effect over the last five years, poaching is still common and takes place most often when animals move down to their winter ranges (Zhang, 1991). Hunting is the major threat to the species in Myanmar, reflecting the same factors as listed above for China (Than Zaw pers. comm. 2006). It is valued when found (W. Duckworth pers. comm. 2006). Horns are valued medicinally in China (Than Zaw pers. comm. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The red goral is listed on Appendix I of CITES, and as a Class I Protected Species in China. Legally it received total protection in 1987 (Zhang, 1991). It is known in at least four protected areas, all in Tibet: Gangxiang, Muotuo, Xiaca and Medoq. A small herd has been breeding successfully in Shang Hai Zoo. Conservation measures proposed for China: 1) Enforce the existing protection laws for this species. 2) Establish the proposed protected areas for this species that have not yet been acted on by the government of Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR). These are: a) an area of 200 km diameter, with its centre at “big turning point of Yarlung Zangbo Jiang” (Zhang, 1987); and b) an “International Mountain Research Centre” in Yegon county with eight nature reserves in the area surrounding Nanjabarva Peak (Mountaineering and Scientific Expedition, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1985). These reserves would include parts of the four counties mentioned above, and contain the core range of red goral, an area that is relatively pristine and has a widespread, complex mountain ecosystem plus a diverse fauna and flora. Obviously efforts should be made to encourage the Government of TAR to make a decision and then to organize the necessary surveys for these proposals.

In India, the red goral is legally protected under Schedule TIT (revised March 1987) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972). It occurrence in protected areas in India is not known, and more surveys are needed to determine its conservation needs in this country.

This species is largely or perhaps entirely within protected areas in Myanmar (Than Zaw pers. comm. 2006), notably the Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary and the Hkakaborazi National Park.

The taxonomic validity of this species, and its relationship to other species in the genus Naemorhedus needs to be assessed.

Bibliography [top]

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Feng Zuojian, Cai Guiguan and Zhang Changlin. 1986. The Mammals of J‘Xizang (Tibet). Science Press, Beijing, China.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

IUCN. 1998. IUCN Guidelines for re-introductions. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Lu Deyu. 1987. Nature Reserves - Yunnan. China Forestry Publishing, Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M. D. and Datta, A. 2006. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: An assessment of threats and conservation needs. Oryx 40: 29-35.

Rabinowitz, A. 1999. Notes on the rare red goral (Naemorhedus baileyi) of north Myanmar. Mammalia 63(1): 119-123.

Shackleton, D. M. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. In: D. M. Shackleton (ed.), Wild sheep and goats and their relatives. Status survey and conservation action plan for Caprinae, IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Sheng, H. L., Ohtaishi, N. and Lu, H. J. 1999. The Mammals of China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Singh, D. N. 2002. Status and distribution of mountain ungulates in Arunachal Pradesh. In: S. Sathyakumar and Y. V. Bhatnagar (eds), ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas Vol 1, No. 1., pp. 44-49.

Smith, A. and Xie, Y. 2008. The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Wang, S. 1998. China red data book of endangered animals: Mammalia. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Wang, Y. X. 2003. A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China (A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference). China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Zhang, C. 1987. Nemorhaedus cranbrookii Hayman. In: H. Soma (ed.), The Biology and Management of Capricornis and related Mountain Antelopes, pp. 213-220. Croom-Helm Ltd, New South Wales, Australia.

Zhang Y. Z. 1991. The atlas of mammalian distributions in China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Citation: Duckworth, J.W. & MacKinnon, J. 2008. Naemorhedus baileyi. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
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