Myotis vivesi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Vespertilionidae

Scientific Name: Myotis vivesi Ménègaux, 1901
Common Name(s):
English Fish-eating Bat, Fish-eating Myotis
Pizonyx vivesi (Ménègaux, 1901)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ae ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-06-19
Assessor(s): Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Ospina-Garces, S.
Reviewer(s): Solari, S.
This bat is listed as Vulnerable because of a population decline, observed to be >30% over the last three generations due effects of introduced taxa (like rats and cats). Although its extent of occurrence is more than 130,000 km², this is a severely fragmented distribution and is declining in its area of occupancy. For this species, recolonization of habitat restored are low and it shows strong female philopatry, so is more vulnerable to loss of habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to the islands of the Gulf of California with a few colonies on the Sonora and Baja California coasts (Mexico) (Flores-Martinez et al. 2005, Simmons 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:134000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Upper elevation limit (metres):200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species was considered as rare in 1994 by the Mexican Government (Ceballos and Oliva 2005). Its larger population was found in Isla Partida and has being estimated between 12,000 and 15,000 individuals (Flores Martinez et al. 2005).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The most common habitat where this species occurs is interstices in rock slides, but only a few small islands contain large rock slides. Caves and crevices are used regularly. When disturbed, it seeks shelter in a wide variety of places. It has been found under flat stones just above the high tide mark and under turtle shells not exposed to direct sun. Fishes alternate with crustaceans comprise the major food for M. vivesi, depends on the season of the year. The presence of predators (native and introduced), population pressure, temperature, and relative inclination of roost all are factors that influence the presence or absence of M. vivesi at any locality. Gestation takes 55 to 65 days. Some pregnant females were found in March, April and May. Females from Baja California give birth to a single young between May and June (Blood and Clark 1998, Flores Martinez et al. 2005).
Generation Length (years):7

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The presence of predators, including alien species (like rats and cats), habitat loss by population pressure, and severe weather changes (temperature), all affect the presence of these bats in coastal habitats. Introduced species are particularly damaging, and some studies have found that native populations are lost when these predators happen to occur on small islands.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There is presence of the species in Las Islas del Golfo de California Biosphere Reserve and Isla Rasa Reserve. The species is included in the Mexican regulation for species conservation NOM-59-SEMARNAT-2001 (under P category which means Endangered with extinction). The protection of this species is being undertaken by the Program for Mexican Bat Conservation (PCMM).

Classifications [top]

0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Felis catus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Blood, B. and Clark, M. 1998. Myotis vivesi. Mammalian Species 588: 1-5.

Ceballos, G. and Oliva, G. 2005. Los mamíferos silvestres de México. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad and Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.

Flores-Martínez, J.J., C.H. Floyd, L.G. Herrera, and B. May. 2005. Genetic variation and population size of the endangered fishing bat, Myotis vivesi in Isla Partida. In: Sánchez-Cordero, V., and R.A. Medellín (eds), Contribuciones mastozoológicas en homenaje a Bernardo Villa, pp. 187-192. Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Instituto de Ecología, UNAM, and CONABIO, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

Floyd, C.H., J.J. Flores-Martínez, L.G. Herrera M., O. Mejía, and B. May. 2010. Conserving the endangered Mexican fishing bat (Myotis vivesi): genetic variation indicates extensive gene flow among islands in the Gulf of California . Conservation Genetics 11: 813-822.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Citation: Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Ospina-Garces, S. 2016. Myotis vivesi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14209A22069146. . Downloaded on 26 September 2017.
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