|Scientific Name:||Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||At present this species includes three forms differing in morphological traits: M. mystacinus mystacinus (most of European range), M. mystacinus occidentalis (Iberia and Morocco) and M. mystacinus caucasicus (Caucasus region).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F. & Aulagnier, S.|
This species has a large population size and a wide distribution. No declines in population size have been detected, and there are no known widespread major threats. Assessed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Myotis mystacinus is a western Palaearctic species, occurring in western and central Europe, southern parts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Morocco, northern parts of eastern Europe, western parts of the Caucasus and the Urals. The occurrence in south-east Europe is questionable but likely. It is marginal in Africa, restricted to Moroccan mountains from the Rif in the north to the southern slope of High Atlas in the south. It has been recorded from sea level up to 1,920 m asl (Gerell 1999).|
Native:Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica); Georgia; Germany; Greece (Kriti); Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe it is one of the more common species within the regular distribution area. It is very rare in North Africa, with only 25 specimens in 4 locations.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Whiskered Myotis (Myotis mystacinus) inhabits forest, woodland edge, shrubland, open meadows, steppe and semi-desert habitats and wooded landscape near to water sources, but is generally more a house-dwelling than woodland bat, and is commonly sighted in parks, gardens and villages. It roosts in colonies, living in trees, amongst rocks, and in livestock pens, and is also known to roost in caves, living there year round, and moving further back into the cave to hibernate during winter (Dulamtseren et al. 1989). Summer maternity roosts are typically sited in trees, buildings, and bird and bat boxes. It hibernates in small groups in underground sites (caves, mines, and cellars). It is an occasional migrant, with movements of up to 240 km recorded (Gerell 1999). Movements of up to 625 km have been described, although the longest distance covered by a bat with certain species identification is 165 km (Gaisler et al. 2003 in Hutterer et al. 2005). It is a nocturnal species emerging to hunt at sunset, but has occasionally been sighted hunting during daylight hours. It hunts exclusively near inland waters, but feeds on non-aquatic flying insects, such as mosquitoes. Young are born in June/July.|
|Generation Length (years):||7.8|
|Use and Trade:||In Africa this species is collected for medicine, but levels of exploitation do not represent a threat.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species overall, although it is affected by loss of woodland and other aspects of land management and development. It is also affected by loss of and damage to roost sites in trees, buildings and underground habitats. In the African part of the species' range, cave habitat where the species roosts is being destroyed by fires and vandalism. Specimens are also collected for medicine, but not at a level that constitutes a threat to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and there is some habitat protection through Natura 2000. It occurs in protected areas throughout its range. Protection of cave roost sites is required.|
Aualgnier. 2009. Mammals of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. A. & C. Black, London.
Bannikov, A.G. 1954. Mammals of the Mongolian People’s Republic. Nauka, Moscow, Russia.
Batsaikhan, N., Lkhagvasuren, D. and Samiya, R. 2004a. Small Mammals of the Great Gobi Strictly Protected Area, South Western Mongolia. In: Ya. Adiya and K. Ulikpan (eds), Some Studies in the Trans-Altai Gob Ecosystem, pp. 95-105. United Nations Development Project-Global Environment Facility, Conservation of the great Gobi and its Umbrella Species, Ulaanbaatar.
Benda, P. and Tsytsulina K. A. 2000. Taxonomic revision of Myotis mystacinus group (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the western Palearctic. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae 64: 331-398.
Dulamtseren, S., Tsendjav, D. and Avirmed, D. 1989. Mammals of Mongolia. Publishing House of the Academy of Science, Ulaanbaatar.
Gerell, R. 1999. Myotis mystacinus. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík, and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.
Hutterer, R., Ivanova, T., Meyer-Cord, Ch. and Rodrigues, L. 2005. Bat Migrations in Europe. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 28: 162.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Sokolov, V. E. and Orlov, V. N. 1980. Guide to the Mammals of Mongolia. Pensoft, Moscow, Russia.
Strelkov, P. P. 1983. Myotis mystacinus and Myotis brandti in the U.S.S.R and their Inter-relations. Zoological Journal 62(2): 259-270.
Stubbe, M. and Chotolchu, N. 1968. Zur Säugetierfauna der Mongolei. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 44: 5-121.
Tupinier, Y. and Aellen, V. 2001. Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817) - Kleine Bartfledermaus (Bartfledermaus). In: F. Krapp (ed.), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas. Band 4: Fledertiere. Teil I: Chiroptera I. Rhinolophidae, Vespertilionidae 1, pp. 321-344. Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim.
Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Coroiu, I. 2016. Myotis mystacinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14134A22052250.Downloaded on 21 January 2018.|
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