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Varecia variegata ssp. subcincta

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Varecia variegata ssp. subcincta
Species Authority: (A. Smith, 1833)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English White-belted Ruffed Lemur

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:
Listed as Critically Endangered as the taxon is suspected to have undergone a population decline of ≥80% over a period of 21 years (three generations), due primarily to observed and inferred continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat from slash-and-burn and commercial agriculture, logging and mining, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. These causes have not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This is the northernmost of the V. variegata subspecies. Its range extends from the Antainambalana River (in the region of Maraontsetra) south to the Anove River (between Soanierana Ivongo and Mananara) in eastern Madagsacar. The subspecies apparently once occurred as far south as the region of Toamasina as well, but has now disappeared from there. All museum specimens examined by Groves (2001) were collected in the Maroantsetra region. This apparently is also the subspecies that was introduced to the island of Nosy Mangabe (Bay of Antongil) back in the 1930s. Its distribution is now very patchy and fragmented, and its population density generally low.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population density is low and in decline due to habitat loss and hunting.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Varecia variegata subcincta prefers lowland rainforest. A long-term study of V. v. subcincta was carried out on Nosy Mangabe by Morland (1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1993). On this island, the animal exhibits a "fission / fusion" social system, in which larger communities of up to 16 individuals split into smaller core-groups during times of the year when fruits are scarce, a behaviour that may enhance foraging efficiency for each individual lemur. These core groups are not cohesive and continue to fission and fuse back together again. Although females usually give birth to twins, short-term data suggest that females do not always reproduce successfully every year, and that a typical mother raises only one infant every second year. The diet consists mainly of ripe fruits, and it appears that only a small number of tree species are exploited. 
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for food. Studies of villages in the Makira Forest have found that ruffed lemur meat is a desired food item, and that current levels of hunting are unsustainable.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats are habitat loss due to slash-and-burn and commercial agriculture, logging, and mining, but hunting is also a major factor and can be very heavy in certain areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on CITES Appendix I. V. v. subcincta is found in Mananara-Nord National Park, the Nosy Mangabe Special Reserve, and in the soon-to-be protected forests of Makira. As of 2009, there was a small captive population, numbering individuals 38 in all, which were being actively managed in various European zoos (Schwitzer and Kaumanns 2001, ISIS 2009).

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

ISIS. 2009. International Species Information System. Apple Valley, MN Available at: www.isis.org. (Accessed: 01.01.2009).

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Morland, H.S. 1990. Parental behavior and infant development in ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in a northeast Madagascar rain forest. American Journal of Primatology 20: 253-265.

Morland, H. S. 1991a. Social organization and ecology of black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in lowland rain forest, Nosy Mangabe, Madagascar. Ph.D. Thesis, Yale University.

Morland, H.S. 1991b. Preliminary report on the social organization of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a northeast Madagascar rain forest. Folia Primatologica 56: 157-161.

Morland, H.S. 1993. Seasonal behavioral variation and its relationship to thermoregulation in ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata).In: Kappeler, P.M., Ganzhorn, J.U. (ed.), Lemur social systems and their ecological basis, pp. 193-203. Plenum Press, New York.

Schwitzer, C., and Kaumanns, W. 2001. Body weights of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in European zoos with reference to the problem of obesity. Zoo Biology 17: 95-109.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Hapke, A., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Varecia variegata ssp. subcincta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.
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