|Scientific Name:||Cacajao hosomi|
|Species Authority:||Boubli, da Silva, Amado, Herbk, Pontual & Farias, 2008|
Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1811) subspecies melanocephalus
|Taxonomic Notes:||The taxonomy of this newly described species follows Boubli et al. (2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2d ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Boubli, J.-P. & Veiga, L.M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as there is reason to believe the species has declined by at least 30% over the past 30 years (three generations) mainly due to hunting.
|Range Description:||The range of this species is delimited to the south and west by the Rio Negro (Brazil, Venezuela), by the Rio Marauiá in the east (Brazil), and the Canal Cassiquiare and Rio Orinoco to the north (Venezuela). The absence of C. hosomi north of the Canal Cassiquiari is speculative at present.|
Native:Brazil; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no precise data concerning total numbers. Boubli (1997) estimated a crude density of 7 animals/km² at his study site in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. However, this is probably an overestimate given that these animals are seasonal vagrants (i.e., they move to different areas in times of food scarcity). Thus, overall densities are probably lower than one individual/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Black-headed Uakaris are found in a variety of habitat types, including terra firme, chavascal, flooded forests (igapós), campinarana or "Rio Negro caatinga" (white sand forests), and montane forest. They are seasonal vagrants and move to different areas of the forest tracking the seasonal variation in availability of preferred fruits. They forage at different levels from the understory to the canopy, but they have never been seen descending to the ground. All uakaris are specialized seed predators and the majority of their diet is made up of immature seeds. The diet can be supplemented by fruit pulp, leaves and arthropods. Group sizes range from 35 to >100 individuals; fission-fusion was never witnessed in this species.|
This species has a limited distribution and is heavily hunted for its meat, particularly by the Yanomami Amerindians from the Maturacá, Nazareth, Xamatá, Pohoró villages, but also by caboclos along the road from São Gabriel da Cachoeira to Cucuí, Amazons, Brazil. Although the consumption of primates and other game by the Yanomamis might have been sustainable in the past, the advent of permanent (missionary encouraged) settlements, and subsequent population increase and use of shotguns are now drastically affecting primate numbers near indigenous villages. Once abundant along the Canal Maturacá (a natural channel that connects the Cauaburi River in Brazil with Canal Cassiquiari in Venezuela), Black-headed Uacaris are now a rare sight in this area. Lehman and Robertson (1994) reported that Black-headed Uakaris were hunted heavily by both illegal Brazilian goldminers and local people and may have been eliminated from much of their range in southern Venezuela. They claim that surviving populations may be restricted to forests in the Rio Baria and the Rio Manipitari interfluvium.
The threat of goldmining present during the 1980s and 1990s is no longer present in the region.
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on CITES Appendix I. Presently, the Pico da Neblina transboundary conservation area protects the species. The Neblina transboundary preservation area consists of one of the largest protected areas in South America with a total of 3,560,000 ha (2,200,000 ha in Brazil and 1,360,000 ha in Venezuela). The Brazilian Pico da Neblina National Park and the Venezuelan Serranía de la Neblina National Park were created (in 1979 and 1978, respectively) in order to protect the Pico da Neblina massif, its endemic flora and fauna, as well as a large area of the surrounding lowlands (Huber 1995). The Black-headed Uakari is possibly the only medium-sized mammal restricted to the Neblina transboundary area and could be used as a flagship species for the conservation of the area.|
Ayres, J. M. 1989. Comparative feeding ecology of the uacari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 697-716.
Barnett, A. A. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1997. The ecology, biogeography and conservation of the uakaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae).
Barnett, A. and da Cunha, A. C. 1991. The golden-backed uacari on the upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Oryx 25(2): 80-88.
Barnett, A. and de Castilho, C. V. 2000. Report on a Short Study of the Dry Season Feeding Ecology and Habitat Preferences of the Golden-backed Uacari Or Bicó, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Cebidae: Pithecinae), on the Lower Rio Jaú. Akodon Ecological Consulting, Amazonas, Brazil.
Bodini, R. 1989. Distribución geográfica y conservación de primates no humanos em Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamérica, pp. 101-113. World Wildlife Fund - US, Washington, DC, USA.
Bodini, R. and Pérez-Hernández, R. 1987. Distribution of the species and subspecies of cebids in Venezuela. Fieldiana: Zoology 39: 231–244.
Boubli, J. P. 1993. Southern expansion of the geographical distribution of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus. International Journal of Primatology 14(6): 933-937.
Boubli, J. P. 1994. The black uakari monkey in the Pico da Neblina National Park. Neotropical Primates 2(3): 11-12.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. A Study of the Black Uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus, in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotropical Primates 5: 113-115.
Boubli, J. P. 1997. Ecology of the Black Uakari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in Pico de Neblina National Park, Brazil. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California.
Boubli, J. P. 1999. Feeding Ecology of Black-headed Uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. International Journal of Primatology 20(5): 719-749.
Boubli, J. P., Silva, M. N. F., Amado, M. V., Herbk, T., Pontual, F. B. and Farias, I. 2008. A taxonomic reassessment of black uakari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus, Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. International Journal of Primatology 29: 723-741.
Defler, T. R. 1991. Preliminary observations of Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates, Cebidae). Trianea 4: 557-558.
Defler, T. R. 1999. Estación Biológica Caparú - Colombian Amazon. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 24-26.
Defler, T. R. 1999. Fission fusion in the black-headed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in eastern Colombia. Neotropical Primates 7(1): 5-8.
Defler, T. R. 2001. Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary densities on the lower Apaporis River, Colombian Amazon. Primate Report.
Defler, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Conservation International, Washington, DC, Usa.
Eisenberg, J.F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2006. Estimativas de Tempos de Divergência em Platirrinos e Filogenia Molecular e Filogeografia dos Uacaris, Parauacus e Cuxiú. Tese Doutorado em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. The nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. Thorington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, pp. 35-69. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.
Hernández-Camacho, J. and Defler, T. R. 1989. Algunos aspectos de la conservación de primates no-humanos en Colombia. In: C. J. Saavedra, R. A. Mittermeier and I. B. Santos (eds), La Primatología en Latinoamerica, pp. 67-100. WWF-U.S., Washington, DC, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1987. Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. American Journal of primatology 12: 1–53.
Huber, O. 1995. Introduction. In: J. A. Steyermark, P. E. Berry and B. K. Holst (eds), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Humboldt, A. 1811. Recueil d’observations de zoologie et d’anatomie compare, faites dans l’ocean atlantique dans l’interior du nouveau continent et dans la mer du sud pendant les années 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803. Levrault Schoell, Paris, France.
Humboldt, A. and Bompland, A. 1907. Personal narrative of travels to the equinoctial regions of America during the years, 1799-1804 / by Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland. London, UK.
Koiffmann, C. P. and Saldanha, P. H. 1981. The karyotype of Cacajao melanocephalus (Platyrrhini, Primates). Folia Primatologica 36: 150-155.
Lehman, S. M. and Robertson, K. L. 1994. A preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus. International Journal of Primatology 15(6): 927-934.
Linares, O. J. 1998. Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
Norconk, M. A., Sussman, R. W. and Phillips-Conroy, J. 1996. Primates of Guayana Shield forests: Venezuela and the Guianas. In: M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger and P. A. Garber (eds), Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, pp. 69-83. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Rudran, R. and Eisenberg, J. F. 1982. Conservation and status of wild primates in Venezuela. International Zoo Yearbook 22: 52-59.
Spix, J. B. 1823. Simiarum et vespertilliarum brasiliensis species novae; ou histoire naturelle des espéces nouvelles des singes et de chauve-souris observée et recueilies pendant le voyage dans l’interieur du Bresil. Monaco.
|Citation:||Boubli, J.-P. & Veiga, L.M. 2008. Cacajao hosomi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|