Zaglossus bartoni 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Monotremata Tachyglossidae

Scientific Name: Zaglossus bartoni
Species Authority: (Thomas, 1907)
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Long-beaked Echidna
Taxonomic Notes: This species includes three very distinctive populations that may represent three different species (diamondi; bartoni including clunius; and smeenki) (K. Helgen pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Leary, T., Seri, L., Flannery, T., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Aplin, K., Salas, L. & Dickman, C.
Reviewer(s): Lamoreux, J. & Hilton-Taylor, C. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Critically Endangered due to a suspected continuing population decline of at least 80% over the last three generations (i.e., the last 45-50 years) based on direct observation in parts of its range, declines in area of occupancy (reports from hunters), and actual levels of exploitation due to hunting.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread throughout the central mountains of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), the Foja Mountains (Indonesia), and the Huon Peninsula (Papua New Guinea), but it has a very patchy distribution and is probably now extirpated from most of its range (specimens are very common in the fossil record). Historically, it has been recorded from sea level to around 4,150 m asl. It is, however, rarely found at sea level now.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
Upper elevation limit (metres): 4150
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species has been hunted to local extinction in the densely populated and accessible regions of New Guinea. It may be more common in inaccessible areas. Tim Flannery (pers. comm.) says that the subpopulations in the western half (mainly the central mountains of Papua, Indonesia) have largely gone extinct, but some in the east (Papua New Guinea) appear to be more secure.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species ranges from tropical hill forests to sub-alpine forests, grasslands and scrub. It is also found in secondary habitats. It has a large altitudinal range. This species lays eggs and the primary food is worms. It can have large home ranges, as evidenced by a recorded home range of about 198 ha over a two month period (D. Wright pers. comm.). Is a long-lived species; there is a record of an animal from the London Zoo which lived for thirty years.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is heavily threatened by hunting for food by local people (a prime prey species), and also by loss of habitat through conversion of suitable areas to cultivated land. A nickel mine has been proposed in the Wowo Gap area (in the next 10-15 years), which is an area that appears to support a good population of this species (L. Seri pers. comm.). The major populations are now largely confined to the higher reaches of the central massifs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It has been recorded from some protected areas. Hunting regulations are needed to protect this species. Further field studies to identify important areas for this species are needed. The taxonomy of this species should be reviewed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Flannery, T. F. 1995. The Mammals of New Guinea, 2nd edition. Reed Books, Sydney, Australia.

Flannery, T. F. and Groves, C. P. 1988. A revision of the genus Zaglossus (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae), with description of new species and subspecies. Mammalia 62: 367-396.

Citation: Leary, T., Seri, L., Flannery, T., Wright, D., Hamilton, S., Helgen, K., Singadan, R., Menzies, J., Allison, A., James, R., Aplin, K., Salas, L. & Dickman, C. 2008. Zaglossus bartoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136552A4309582. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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