|Scientific Name:||Babyrousa togeanensis|
|Species Authority:||(Sody, 1949)|
Babirussa babyrussa ssp. togeanensis Sody, 1949
Babyrousa babyrussa ssp. togeanensis (Sody, 1949)
Groves (2001) and Meijaard and Groves (2002a ,b) proposed to upgrade the three extant subspecies of Babyrousa to species level: B. celebensis from northern Sulawesi; B. togeanensis from the Togian islands; and B. babyrussa from Buru and the Sula Islands. A single skull from central Sulawesi may or may not represent the species known otherwise only as a subfossil from the southern peninsula, B. bolabatuensis. The taxonomic identity of the individuals from central, eastern and southeastern Sulawesi was left undecided. Until further studies have brought clarity, all animals occurring on Sulawesi, Muna, Buton and Lembeh are treated here as Babyrousa celebensis. A large taxonomic study based on skull and tooth morphology as well as molecular genetic analyses is close to completion.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Macdonald, A., Leus, K., Masaaki, I. & Burton, J.|
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 1,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat; and because its population size is estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, there is an observed continuing decline in the number of mature individuals, and no subpopulation contains more than 250 mature individuals.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Babyrousa togeanensis is confined to the Togian Archipelago in Indonesia, in the Gulf of Tomini between the northern and eastern Sulawesi peninsulas (Macdonald 1993). Babirusas are found on the islands Batudaka, Togean, Talatakoh and Malenge (Ito 2008, Ito et al. 2005, 2008; Akbar et al. 2007). Local people report Babirusa crossing the straits between Malenge, Togian and Talatakoh (Selmier 1983, Akbar et al. 2007, Ito 2008). Occasionally, Togian Babirusa can be seen on their satellite islets like Pangempan (Selmier 1983). There are no sightings of Babirusa on Waleakodi, Waleabahi and Una una, possibly due to insufficient water resources (Ito in press).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Selmier (1983) estimated that the total 1978 population on the Togian Islands was in the region of 500 to 1,000 individuals. Estimates by Ito (pers. comm. 2008) place the upper limit of population size at about 500. Recent estimation from questionnaires showed local residents did not provide agreement on population size (ranges from 100 to >1,000), but the interview surveys did suggest that at least between 1995 and 2000 there had not been a sharp population decline (Akbar et al. 2007). During a questionnaire survey conducted in 2007, 39.9% of respondents reported a decrease in Babirusa numbers and estimated the population on Malenge Island at less than 100 individuals (Ito 2008).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Babirusas generally inhabit tropical rain forest on the banks of rivers and ponds abounding in water plants. On the Togian Islands, Babirusas were also sighted in mixed gardens, coconut plantations, regrowing scrub of former ‘ladang’, secondary forest, village edges, freshwater and mangrove swamps, and other coastal habitats (Akbar et al. 2007). Togian Islands Babirusas are mainly active in the morning or late afternoon, generally resting in cool places during the hot daytime periods, but they have also been seen active in the daytime, even in cultivated areas if disturbance is low (Selmier 1983, Ito et al. 2005, Akbar et al. 2007) .
In common with most of the other suids, Babirusas are omnivorous and both wild and captive individuals consume a wide variety of leaf, root, fruit and animal matter (invertebrates and small vertebrates). On the Togian Islands their diet also includes a wide variety of cultivated crops such as sweet potato and cassava, mango, jackfruit, mangosteen, papaya, banana, etc. (Selmier 1983, Ito et al. 2005, Akbar et al. 2007, Ito in press, M. Ito pers. obs.). In fact coconut fruit and pangi fruits (Pangium edule) are some of the most important food resources for this species (Ito in press).
Babirusas on Sulawesi visit volcanic salt licks and drink the water and ingest the soil (Clayton 1996, Leus et al. 2002), and so they might also do this on the Togian Islands. Although detailed studies of their diet in the wild still need to be carried out, a review of the available information from the wild combined with studies on the stomachs and digestive abilities of captive animals suggest that from an anatomical/digestive point of view, they are most likely non-ruminant forestomach fermenting frugivores/concentrate selectors (Leus et al. 2004). Their jaws and teeth are reported to be strong enough to crack very hard nuts with ease. However, Babirusa do not exhibit the rooting behaviour typical of other suids because of the absence of a prominent rostral bone in the nose (Macdonald 2016). They will probe soft sand as well as wet, muddy places for food.
On the Togian Islands troops of up to eleven individuals have been observed (Ito et al. 2005). During interview surveys on the Togian Islands, 37% of respondents considered Babirusas to be solitary, 29.6% reported them to occur in groups composed of one adult pair with a litter and 29.5% of respondents reported a group size of more than 5 typically composed of an adult males with multiple females and their litters (Akbar et al. 2007). Litters count 1-2 offspring and young individuals follow their mother for several months after weaning (Ito 2003, Ito et al. 2005).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||Hunting for food only occurs in a few non-Muslim village communities.|
|Major Threat(s):||Babirusa on the Togian Islands are susceptible to habitat loss due to forest clearance and forest fires, to disturbance by humans, occasional hunting by the local people if perceived as a threat to crops and predation by dogs (Ito et al. 2005, Akbar et al. 2007, M. Ito pers. comm. 2008). Hunting for food only occurs in a few non-Muslim village communities. In 1998 two thirds of Malenge Island’s forest was damaged by fire (due to annual climatic variation). No large animal carcasses were found and Babirusa have been seen in several of these localities since, but the fire may have impacted food availability for the species (Ito et al. 2005, Akbar et al. 2006).|
All species of Babirusa were accorded full protection under Indonesian law in 1931 (Dammerman 1950, Setyodirwiryo 1959). Babirusa are currently protected by Indonesian law Act No. 5/1990 Conservation of Living Resources and Their Ecosystems, Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 5 Tahun 1990 Tentang Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Hayati Dan Ekosistemnya). In 2013, the Indonesian government released a taxon-specific conservation strategy and action plan (Strategi Dan Rencana Aksi Konservasi Babirusa Tahun 2013-2022) (DKKH 2015). The national action plan identifies all islands where the species currently occurs (Batudaka, Togean, Talatakoh and Malenge) as sites for conservation (DKKH 2015).
Akbar, S., Indrawan, M., Yasin, M.P., Burton, J. and Ivan, J. 2007. Status and conservation of Babyrousa babyrussa in the Togean Islands, based on direct observations and questionnaire surveys (intermittently, 1990-2001). Suiform Soundings 7: 1.
Blouch, R.A. 1990. Report from the field: Indonesia. Smithsonian Institution Conservation and Research Centre Newsletter 1: 6-8.
Clayton, L.M. 1996. Conservation Biology of the Babyrusa Babyrousa babyrussa in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oxford.
Clayton, L.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Sinaga, D.W. and Mustari, A.H. 2000. Effects of a Proposed Ex Situ Conservation Program on In Situ Conservation of the Babirusa, an Endangered Suid. Conservation Biology 14(2): 382-385.
Dammerman, K.W. 1950. Geschiedenis van de natuurbescherming in Indonesië. Chronica Naturae 106: 216-228.
Deninger, K. 1910. Über Babyrusa. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiburg i. Br 18: 1-22.
Direktorat Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati. 2015. Strategi dan Rencana Aksi Konservasi Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Tahun 2013-2022. Direktorat Konservasi Keanekaragaman Hayati, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Groves, C.P. 2001. Mammals in Sulawesi: Where did they come from and when, and what happened to them when they got there? In: I. Metcalfe, J. M. B. Smith, M. Morwood, and I. Davidson (eds), Faunal and floral migration and evolution in SE Asia-Australasia, pp. 333-342. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Lisse, The Netherlands.
Ito, M. 2003. Preliminary report on Togian babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa togeanensis) on Malenge Island, Central Sulawesi. Unpublished report to LIPI. Jakarta, Indonesa.
Ito, M. 2008. Field status surveys and educational programs of Togian babirusa (Babyrousa togeanensis) on Malenge Island, Central Sulawesi. Unpublished report to LIPI. Jakarta, Indonesia.
Ito, M., Balik I.W. and Setiawan, L. 2008. Needs of educational activity for conservation of Togean babirusa in Togean Archipelago, Central Sulawesi. Proceedings Joint meeting of the 3rd International Meeting on Asian Zoo/Wildlife Medicine and Conservation & 10th National Veterinary Scientific Conference of Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association, pp. 234-236. Bogor, Indonesia.
Ito, M. in press. Togian babirusa Babyoursa togeanensis (Sody, 1949). In: M. Melletti and E. Meijaard (eds), Ecology, Evolution and Management of Wild Pigs and Peccaries. Implications for Conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (in press).
Ito, M., Nakata, H., Jaga, I.M. and Balik, I.W. 2005. Status of Togian babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa togianensis) on Malenge Island, Central Sulawesi. In: N. Sugiri, A. H. Mustari, I. S. Suwelo and I. Djuwita (eds), Kumpulan makalah seminar sehari peduli Anoa dan Babirusa Indonesia, Bogor, pp. 71-77. Bogor, Indonesia.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Lee, R.J., Gorog, A.J., Dwiyahreni, A., Siwu, S., Riley, J., Alexander, H., Paoli, G.D. and Ramono, W. 2005. Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: a case study from North Sulawesi. Biological Conservation 123: 477-488.
Leus, K., Macdonald, A. A., Goodall, G. P., Veitch, D., Mitchell, S. and Bauwens, L. 2004. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the cardiac gland region of the stomach of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa - Suidae, Mammalia). Comptes Rendus Biologies 327: 735-743.
Leus, K., Morgan, C. A. and Dierenfeld, E. S. 2002. Nutrition of the babirusa. In: M. Fischer (ed.), Husbandry Guidelines for the Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) Species Survival Plan, pp. 12-25. St Louis Zoo, St Louis, Missouri, USA.
Macdonald, A.A. 1993. The Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). In: W.L.R. Oliver (ed.), Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Macdonald, A.A. 2016. Sulawesi Babirusa Babyrousa celebensis (Deninger, 1909). In: M. Melletti and E. Meijaard (eds), Ecology, Evolution and Management of Wild Pigs and Peccaries. Implications for Conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Meijaard, E. and Groves, C.P. 2002a. Proposal for taxonomic changes within the genus Babyrousa. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(1): 9-10.
Meijaard, E. and Groves, C.P. 2002b. Upgrading three subspecies of Babirusa (Babyrousa sp.) to full species level. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(2): 33-39.
Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Clayton, L. 2002. The trade in babirusas and wild pigs in North Sulawesi. Indonesia Ecological Economics 42: 165–183.
Patry, M., Leus, K. and Macdonald, A.A. 1995. Group structure and behaviour of babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in northern Sulawesi. Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 643-655.
Riley, J. 2002. Current Wildlife Conservation Society research and conservation of Sulawesi's suids. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2): 26-30.
Selmier, V.J. 1983. Bestandsgrosse und Verhalten des Hirschebers (Babyrousa babyrussa) auf den Togian Inseln. Bongo 7: 51-64.
Setyodirwiryo, K. 1959. Nature protection in Indonesia. Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress of the Pacific Science Association 7: 18-20.
Smiet, F. 1982. Threats to the Spice Islands. Oryx 14: 323-328.
Surjadi, P. & Supriatna, J. 1998. Bridging community needs and government planning in the Togean Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In: Dight, I., Kenchington, R. & Baldwin, J. (ed.), Proceedings, International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Management Symposium (ITMEMS), November 22, pp. 280-286. Townsville, Australia.
|Citation:||Macdonald, A., Leus, K., Masaaki, I. & Burton, J. 2016. Babyrousa togeanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136472A44143172.Downloaded on 17 January 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|