Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Sus oliveri
Species Authority: Groves, 1997
Common Name(s):
English Oliver's Warty Pig
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was recognized as a separate species from Sus philippensis according to Groves (2001). It is known from four skulls and a mounted head collected in 1993 now in the Field Museum, Chicago, which constitutes the holotype (Grubb 2005, W. Oliver unpublished).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oliver, W.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. & Oliver, W. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority)
Listed as Endangered, because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km² and its area of occupancy is less than 500 km², its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals to hybridisation and over-hunting.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Philippines, where is found only on Mindoro (Heaney et al. 1998). Surveys conducted in the late 1990’s indicated the species is now mostly confined to the central and north-western mountain ranges higher elevations.
Countries occurrence:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Its population size is unknown, but it is fragmented and declining.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species was formerly found in most habitats, from sea level to upper montane areas. It now occurs in lowland, mid-montane and dry-molave forests and savanna grasslands (Gonzalez et al1999), being mainly restricted to higher elevations.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species include widespread destruction of former forest habitats, evident weaknesses in the existing protected areas network on Mindoro, and anomalies in local legislation pertaining to allowable hunting of threatened versus non-threatened’ species by local indigenous peoples. Many (perhaps most) of Mindoro’s remaining forest areas are also severely threatened by commercial mining claims and salient ‘pro-mining’ agendas by many of the relevant Philippine governmental authorities. Genetic contamination via hybridisation with free-ranging domestic pigs maintained in hinterland communities is also known to occur in Mindoro and might pose the single most important threat to the genetic integrity of this species (Gonzalez et al, 1999; W. Oliver pers. comm.). It is also hunted for food, bushmeat trade and local ceremonials.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in several designated protected areas, though most of these exist only on paper. The clear exception is Mount Iglit-Baco Natural Park, though this area largely comprises of a former cattle ranch and therefore also largely composed of grasslands unlikely to adequately support representative biodiversity in this globally critical region. Reinforcement of existing legislation, more effective protection of the few remaining natural habitats of Mindoro, research to identify pure populations, and increased public awareness, are all needed as a matter of some urgency for the conservation of this and other Mindoron endemic species (Boitani et al. 2006; Gonzalez et al, 1999).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Sus domesticus)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.1. Hybridisation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Boitani, L., Catullo, G., Marzetti, I., Masi, M., Rulli, M. and Savini, S. 2006. The Southeast Asian Mammal Databank. A tool for conservation and monitoring of mammal diversity in Southeast Asia. Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Rome, Italy.

Gonzalez, J. C. T., Dans, A. T. L. and Afuang, L. E. 1999. Rapid island-wide survey of terrestrial fauna and flora on Mindoro Island, Philippines. Unpublished report to Philipinas Shell Foundation, and FFI-Philippines Programme.

Groves, C. P. 1997. Taxonomy of wild pigs (Sus) of the Phillipines. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 163-191.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Taxonomy of wild pigs of Southeast Asia. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 1(1): 3-4.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N.R., Lepiten, M.V., Oliver, W.L.R., Ong, P.S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the mammalian fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 88: 1–61.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Citation: Oliver, W. 2008. Sus oliveri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136340A4276998. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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