Salamandrina perspicillata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Salamandrina perspicillata
Species Authority: (Savi, 1821)
Taxonomic Notes: We follow Mattoccia et al. (2005) and Canestrelli et al. (2006) in separating Salamandrina perspicillata from S. terdigitata.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Antonio Romano, Marco Mattoccia, Valerio Sbordoni, Franco Andreone, Claudia Corti
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to peninsular Italy, mainly in the Appenine Mountains (where it is widespread), but also in other hilly areas to the west and east of the Appenines, south to the province of Caserta (Campania region) (south of this it is replaced by Salamandrina terdigitata). It is usually found at elevations between 200 and 900m asl, but can occur between 50 and 1,500m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Lower elevation limit (metres): 50
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is sometimes difficult to find, but it is common in western parts of its range.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly found in forests with dense undergrowth in hilly and mountainous areas, often in north-facing mountain valleys. Only females of this species are aquatic during the short oviposition phase for which well-oxygenated waters, slow running streams (usually with rocky beds), drinking troughs, and residual and vernal ponds (sometime of very small dimensions) are used. It appears to avoid seriously modified habitats. This species shows high site fidelity to breeding sites.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In parts of the species range there are some localized declines through habitat loss and aquatic pollution. But overall, it is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is protected by law in several provinces in Italy, and it is listed in Appendix II of the Bern Convention. It occurs in several protected areas, including the Abruzzo National Park.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

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Angelini, C., Antonelli, D. and Utzeri, C. 2008. A multi-year and multi-site population study on the life history of Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821) (Amphibia, Urodela). Amphibia-Reptilia 29: 161-170.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.

Böhme, W, Grossenbacher, K. and Thiesmeier, B. 1999. Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, band 4/I:Schwanzlurche (Urodela)..

Bovero, S., Angelini, C. and Utzeri, C. 2006. Aging Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821) by skeletochronology. Acta Herpetologica 1: 153-158.

Canestrelli, D., Zangari, F. and Nascetti, G. 2006. Genetic evidence for two distinct species within the Italian endemic Salamandrina terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789) (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Herpetological Journal 16: 221-227.

Corsetti, L. 1999. Habitat characteristics of the spectacled salamander Salamandrina terdigitata (Lacépède, 1788) in southern Latium (Central Italy). Amphibia-Reptilia: 77-82.

Della Rocca, F., Vignoli, L., Bologna, M. 2005. The reproductive biology of Salamandrina terdigitata (Caudata, Salamandridae). Herpetological Journal 15: 273-278.

Griffiths, R.A. 1996. Newts and Salamanders of Europe. Poyser Natural History, London.

IUCN. 2009. European Species on the IUCN Red List. Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2009).

Lanza, B., Andreone, F., Bologna, M.A., Corti, C. and Razzetti, E. 2007. Fauna d'Italia Amphibia. Vol. XLII. Edizioni Calderini de Il Sole 24 ORE Editoria Specializzta S.r.l., Bologna.

Mattoccia, M., Romano, A. and Sbordoni, V. 2005. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the spectacled salamander, Salamandrina terdigitata (Urodela: Salamandridae), supports the existence of two distinct species. Zootaxa: 1-19.

Romano, A. and Mattoccia, M. 2005. Maximum size of the Spectacled Salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821). Herpetozoa 18: 186-187.

Romano, A. and Ruggiero, A. 2008. Olfactory recognition of terrestrial shelters in females of Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821). Phyllomedusa - Journal of Herpetology 7(1): 3-10.

Romano, A., Forcina, G.. and Barbanera, F. 2007. Breeding site selection by olfactory cues in the threatened northern spectacled salamander Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821). Aquatic Conservation 18: DOI: 10.1002/aqc.890.

Romano, A., Mattoccia, M., Bogaerts, S., Pasmans, F. and Sbordoni, V. 2005. Distribuzione geografica delle due specie di Salamandrina in Italia (S. perspicillata e S. terdigitata) e dati preliminari sulla variazione del pattern cromatico. Abstract. 66° National Congress of Unione Zoologica Italiana: 49. ,Roma.

Romano, A., Mattoccia, M., Marta, S., Bogaerts, S., Pasmans, F. and Sbordoni, V. in press.. Distribution and morphological characterization of the endemic Italian salamanders Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821) and S. terdigitata (Bonnaterre, 1789) (Caudata: Salamandridae). Italian Journal of Zoology..

Romano, A., Spilinga, C., Montioni, F., Fiacchini, D. and Ragni, B. 2008. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821). Acta Herpetologica 3(1): 71-75.

Sindaco, R., Doria, G., Razzetti, E. and Bernini, F. 2006. Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles\\Atlante Degli Anfibi E Dei Rettili D'Italia. Societas Herpetologica Italica - Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze.

Thorn, R. 1968. Les salamandres d'Europe, d'Asia, et d'Afrique du Nord. Éditions Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Thorn, R. and Raffaëlli, J. 2001. Les Salamanders de L'Ancien Monde. Societé Nouvelle des Editions Boubée, Paris.

Utzeri, C., Antonelli, D. and Angelini, C. 2004. A note on terrestrial activity and feeding in the Spectacled Salamander, Salamandrina terdigitata (Urodela, Salamandridae). Herp. Bull. 90: 27-31.

Utzeri, C., Antonelli, D. and Angelini, C. 2005. Note on the behavior of the Spectacled Salamander Salamandrina terdigitata (Lacépede, 1788). Herpetozoa 18(3/4): 182-185.

Vanni, S. 1980. Note sulla salamandrina dagli occhiali [Salamandrina terdigitata (Lacépède, 1788)] in Toscana (Amphibia Salamandridae). Atti Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat., Pisa, Mem. (B): 135-159.

Vignoli, L. and Bologna, M.A. 2001. Salamandrina terdigitata (Spectacled salamander). Terrestrial oviposition. Herpetological Review: 99.

Citation: Antonio Romano, Marco Mattoccia, Valerio Sbordoni, Franco Andreone, Claudia Corti. 2009. Salamandrina perspicillata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T136135A4248006. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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