Mixophyes iteratus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Myobatrachidae

Scientific Name: Mixophyes iteratus
Species Authority: Straughan, 1968
Common Name(s):
English Giant Barred-frog, Giant Barred River-frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Harry Hines, David Newell, John Clarke, Jean-Marc Hero, Ed Meyer
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Endangered, because its Area of Occupancy is less than 500 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its its Area of Occupancy, in the extent and quality of its habitat, in the number of subpopulations, and in the number of mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species, an Australian endemic, is distributed from Belli Creek near Eumundi, south-east Queensland, south to Warrimoo in mid-eastern New South Wales (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). It is currently known from mid to low altitudes below 610m asl. In south-east Queensland, it is currently known from scattered locations in the Mary River catchments downstream to about Kenilworth, Upper Stanley River, Caboolture River and Coomera River (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:During the early 1980s, the giant barred-frog declined and disappeared from at least two streams in the Conondale Range (Corben, in McDonald 1991). The Bunya Mount (Straughan 1966) and Cunningham’s Gap (Straughan 1966) previously supported this species, but these and nearby sites have recently been the subject of targeted surveys and intensive monitoring without locating the species (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Assessing the extent of the decline is difficult because of the lack of baseline data on its distribution and abundance (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). The species has suffered major declines in the southern portion of its range in the Sydney Basin Region (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999; White 2000) where extant populations were recorded at only two of the 14 historical sites surveyed (White 2000). There are no recent records from the Blue Mountains and the species is currently only known from five populations in the Watagan Mountains area (White 2000). A population was recently located in the southern Nambucca River catchments (NSW NPWS 1994). North of this there is currently a large population in the Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour area, North Washpool and Bungawalbin State Forest (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). In far north-east New South Wales, it is known from only three broad areas (Mebbin, Whian Whian and Richmond Range), despite intensive surveys (Goldingay, Newell and Graham 1999). Goldingay, Newell and Graham (1999) reported that the density of these populations was relatively low with an average abundance of 4.2 individuals per 100m of stream transect between 1997 and 1998 and an average of 3.4 individuals over the same transects in 1999 (Goldingay, Newell and Graham 1999).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in upland and lowland rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest, and adjacent farmland (Ingram and McDonald 1993). Populations have been found in disturbed areas with riparian strips including cattle farms and regenerating logged areas (Hero and Shoo pers. obs.). They have also been recorded from eucalypt plantations (Lemckert and Morse 1999) and in streams within partially to nearly completely cleared lands (Lemckert and Brassil 2000; Lemckert 2002). It is a stream-breeding species. Eggs are deposited out of water, under overhanging banks or on steep banks of large pools (Knowles et al. 1998). The stream microhabitats used by the species for oviposition are limited (Knowles et al. 1998). Hero and Fickling (1996) and Morrison and Hero (2002) reported clutch sizes for the species as 4184 (n=1) and 1343-3471 (n=13), respectively, and egg diameter ranges between 1.7 and 1.8mm (n=5) (Morrison and Hero 2002). Larvae are described in Meyer, Hines and Hero (2001) and Anstis (2000).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Many sites where this species occurs are the lower reaches of streams, which have had major disturbances such as clearing, timber harvesting and urban development in their headwaters (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). In the Dorrigo area, Lemckert (1999) found that it was less abundant in recently logged areas and sites where there was little undisturbed forest. The impacts of feral animals, domestic stock, weed invasion and disturbance to riparian vegetation, all potential threats to current populations, are unknown (Hines, Mahony and McDonald 1999). Populations now generally exist in small, isolated patches of forest. The effect this may have on genetic variation within populations and the general health of individuals is unknown. The species does colonize and use plantations and vegetated streams in otherwise cleared agricultural lands. This is positive for the survival of the species, but also indicates that such sites can be of some significance and any clearing of this vegetation may be of some significance.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as endangered in Australian legislation. Much of its habitat is protected within national parks and state forests. Research and monitoring protocols are in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Anstis, M. 2000. Tadpoles of south-eastern Australia: A guide with keys. Reed New Holland Publishers, Sydney.

Goldingay, R., Newell, D. and Graham, M. 1999. The status of Rainforest Stream Frogs in north-eastern New South Wales: decline or recovery? In: Campbell, A. (ed.), Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, pp. 64-71. Environment Australia.

Hero, J.-M. and Fickling, S. 1996. Reproductive characteristics of female frogs from mesic habitats in Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum: 306.

Hines, H., Mahony, M. and McDonald, K. 1999. An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia. In: Campbell, A. (ed.), Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, Environment Australia.

Ingram, G.J. and McDonald, K.R. 1993. An update on the decline of Queenslands frogs. In: Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. (eds), Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, pp. 297-303. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2004).

Knowles, R., Hines, H.B., Thum, K., Mahony, M. and Cunningham, M. 1998. Oviposition of the barred-frogs (Mixophyes species) in southeastern Australia with implications for management. Unpublished abstract of a talk presented.

Lemckert, F. 1999. Impacts of selective logging on frogs in a forested area of northern New South Wales. Biological Conservation: 321-328.

Lemckert, F. 2002. The frog with the midas looks (4). Australian Nature: 62-69.

Lemckert, F. and Brassil, T. 2000. Movements and habitat use of the endangered Giant Barred River Frog (Mixophyes iteratus) and the implications for its conservation in timber production forests. Biological Conservation: 177-184.

Lemckert, F.L. and Morse, R. 1999. Frogs in the timber production forests of the Dorrigo Escarpment in northern New South Wales: An inventory of species present and the conservation of threatened species. In: Campbell, A. (ed.), Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, pp. 72-80. Environment Australia, Canberra.

Mahony, M., Knowles, R. and Pattinson, L. 1997. Gold-eyed Barred Frog, Mixophyes iteratus. In: Ehmann, H. (ed.), Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, Status and Conservation, pp. 78-83. Frog and Tadpole Study Group of New South Wales, Sydney South, Australia.

McDonald, K.R. 1991. Report of a workshop on declining frog populations in Queensland. Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Meyer, E., Hines, H. and Hero, J.-M. 2001. Giant Barred-Frog, Mixophyes iteratus. Wet Forest Frogs of South-east Queensland, pp. 30-31. Griffith University, Gold Coast.

Morrison, C. and Hero, J.-M. 2002. Geographic variation in life history characteristics of amphibians in mid-eastern Australia: reproductive traits. In: Natrass, R. (ed.), Frogs in the Community - Proceedings of the Brisbane Conference 13-14 February 1999, pp. 40-48. Queensland Frog Society Inc.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1994. Fauna of North-east NSW Forests. North-east Forests Biodiversity Study Report No. 3, Unpublished report, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurtsville.

Straughan, I.R. 1966. An analysis of species recognition and species isolation in certain Queensland frogs. PhD Thesis, University of Queensland.

Streatfeild, C. 1999. Spatial movements of Mixophyes iteratus and M. fasciolatus in southeast Queensland. Honours Thesis, Griffith University, Queensland.

Tyler, M.J. 1997. The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra.

White, A. 2000. The status of the Barred River Frogs Mixophyes balbus and Mixophyes iteratus in the Sydney Basin Region of New South Wales 1999-2000. Report for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Citation: Harry Hines, David Newell, John Clarke, Jean-Marc Hero, Ed Meyer. 2004. Mixophyes iteratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T13598A4222278. . Downloaded on 19 January 2017.
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