|Scientific Name:||Tylototriton vietnamensis|
|Species Authority:||Böhme, Schöttler, Truong & Köhler, 2005|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Results of the phylogenetic analysis by Weisrock et al. (2006) showed that the Chinese Hainan Island species Tylototriton hainanensis is grouped in a strongly supported clade with T. vietnamensis.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Rowley, J.L. & Cutajar, T.|
Listed as Endangered as this species has only two threat-defined locations, its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is only 1,345 km2, and there is a decline in the extent and quality of parts its habitat.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is currently known only from 181-512 m asl in Bac Giang and Quang Ninh Provinces, northeastern Viet Nam (Böhme et al. 2005, Bernardes et al. 2013, Hecht et al. 2013). Tylototriton populations elsewhere have been assigned to this species (Böhme et al. 2005, Nguyen et al. 2009), however, subsequent phylogenetic investigation has shown that of all reported localities, only those around its type-locality are in fact assignable to this species (Yuan et al. 2011). The species' estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,345 km2, which represents two threat-defined localities.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Nothing is known about the size and trends of this species' population except that it has only been recorded from three surveys (Böhme et al. 2005, Bernardes et al. 2013, Hecht et al. 2013). There are a number individuals of this species in captivity, (Timothy Cutajar pers. obs. January 2016), however little information on its trade exists. Rapid agricultural expansion (Sodhi et al. 2009) and a projected increase in its impact on forest quality in Viet Nam (Bernardes et al. 2013), as well as collection for the pet trade are very likely causing population declines in this species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is associated with lowland evergreen forest characterised by a vegetation community of hardwoods, bamboo and shrubs (Bernardes et al. 2013). Most observations of the species have occurred around temporary pools during the breeding season (Bernardes et al. 2013). Outside of this period the species is predominantly terrestrial (Bernardes et al. 2013). Reproduction in this species is by aquatic larval development and coincides with the rainy season when pools and ponds form (Bernardes et al. 2013). Densely vegetated pools with relatively long hydroperiods appear to be preferred by the species, and both eggs and larvae have been recorded in such pools from April to July (Bernardes et al. 2013). Forest habitat in much of Viet Nam is being lost to agriculture (Sodhi et al. 2009), including in areas that are likely inhabited by this species (Bernardes et al. 2013). Recent satellite imagery reveals that the forest of the species' only known localities is almost entirely surrounded (and in parts intersected) by agricultural land (T. Cutajar pers. obs. January 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||A recent online search revealed a number of individuals of this in the international pet trade (T. Cutajar pers. obs. January 2016). Tylototriton species are known to be collected and traded locally for use in traditional medicines and internationally in the pet trade (Nishikawa et al. 2013, Stuart et al. 2010, Rowley et al. 2010). Given the historic confusion of this species with T. asperrimus and other congeners (Böhme et al. 2005), it is likely that additional individuals are also traded under misnomers.|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation due to the rapid expansion of agricultural land is ongoing throughout Viet Nam (Sodhi et al. 2009) and expected to increase with growing human populations, leaving this forest-dependent species vulnerable to habitat loss (Bernardes et al. 2013). Much of the area surrounding this species' localities consists of cleared agricultural land (T. Cutajar pers. obs. January 2016). Other Tylototriton species are known to be collected for use in traditional medicines and the pet trade (Nishikawa et al. 2013, Stuart et al. 2010, Rowley et al. 2010); this species is likely to have been exported internationally for the pet trade under an incorrect name, and a number of individuals have indeed already been identified from the trade (T. Cutajar pers. comm. 2016). Unsustainable harvest to supply such demand is a very likely threat to this species.|
This species is known from Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve (Böhme et al. 2005). No other protected areas are included within its estimated range.
It may also be necessary to explore avenues for increased protection of the species and its habitat. Regulation of the species' harvest and trade will likely also be important for its conservation.
Addressing the lack of data is the first step towards ensuring this species' survival; further research on its abundance, distribution, harvest rates and threats would inform conservation decisions.
Bernardes, M., Rödder, D., Nguyen, T.T., Pham, C.T., Nguyen, T.Q. and Ziegler, T. 2013. Habitat characterization and potential distribution of Tylototriton vietnamensis in northern Vietnam. Journal of Natural History 47(17-18).
Böhme, W., Schöttler, T., Truong, N.Q. and Köhler, J. 2005. A new species of salamander, genus Tylototriton (Urodela: Salamandridae), from northern Vietnam. Salamandra 41: 215-220.
Hecht, V.L., Pham, C.T., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, T.Q., Bonkowski, M. and Ziegler, T. 2013. First report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal 4(4): 507-552.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Nguyen, V.S., Ho, T.C. and Nguyen, Q.T. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
Nishikawa, K., Matsui, M. and Nguyen, T.T. 2013. A new species of Tylototriton from northern Vietnam (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae). Current Herpetology 32(1): 34-49.
Rowley, J., Brown, R., Bain, R, Kusrini, M., Inger, R., Stuart, B., Wogan, G., Thy, N., Chan-ard, T, Trung, C.T., Diesmos, A., Iskandar, D.T., Lau, M., Ming, L.T., Makchai, S., Nguyen, Q.T. and Phimmachak, S. 2010. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians. Biology Letters 6(3): 336-338.
Sodhi, N.S., Lee, T.M., Koh, L.P. and Brook, B.W. 2009. A meta-analysis of the impact of anthropogenic forest disturbance on Southeast Asias biotas. Biotropica 41: 103-109.
Stuart, B.L., Phimmachak, S., Sivongxay, N. and Robichaud, W.G. 2010. A new species in the Tylototriton asperrimus group (Caudata: Salamandridae) from central Laos. Zootaxa 2650: 19-32.
Yuan, Z.Y., Jiang, K., Lu, S.Q., Yang, J.X., Nguyen, T.T., Jin, J.Q. and Che, J. 2011. A phylogeny of the Tylototriton asperrimus group (Caudata: Salamandridae) based on a mitochondrial study: suggestions for a taxonomic revision. Zoological Research 32(6): 577-584.
|Citation:||IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. 2016. Tylototriton vietnamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T135868A88920562.Downloaded on 28 May 2017.|
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