|Scientific Name:||Abramis brama|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Other breams traditionally included in Abramis are now placed in Ballerus, Blicca and Vimba.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Most European drainages, from Adour (France) to Pechora (White Sea basin); Aegean Sea basin, in Lake Volvi and Struma and Maritza drainages. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Scotland, Scandinavia north of Bergen (Norway) and 67°N (Finland). Locally introduced in Ireland, Spain and northeastern Italy. In Asia, Marmara basin (Turkey) and eastward to Aral basin. Introduced in Lake Baikal and upper Ob and Yenisei drainages.|
Native:Afghanistan; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
A wide variety of lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Most abundant in backwaters, lower reaches of slow-flowing rivers, brackish estuaries and warm and shallow lakes. Semi-anadromous individuals enter freshened parts of seas to forage. Usually spawns in densely vegetated backwaters, floodplains or lake shores. Sometimes far from shore. Nearly all surfaces can be used for spawning.
Gregarious. During winter, form large aggregations, often together with other fish. Lives about 10-20 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-4 years. Some females do not spawn every year. Spawns in May-June at temperatures above 15°C. In many populations, spawning migration starts in autumn (especially semi-anadromous individuals), slows down during winter and continues in spring. Migrate far upriver (100 km in Dniepr) to spawn. Males with nuptial tubercles on head and body. Males often defend spawning territories along shoreline. Females spawn from once a year over a few days (Rhine) to 1-3 portions, at 7-14 days intervals (Lake Ilmen). Eggs are sticky and egg size increase with age of female. Larvae and juveniles inhabit still water bodies, feeding on plankton. Survival of juvenile is high in backwaters and low in main channel of large rivers. Growth is faster in main river than in backwaters. Juveniles 1-2 years old move from backwaters to river for feeding and then return to backwaters to spawn. If juveniles do not have an opportunity to leave backwaters, they are able to adapt but have a slower growth and reach maturity at a smaller size (stunted populations). In lower parts of large rivers, juveniles drift to brackish estuaries to forage when water level of flooded areas drops. Juveniles forage in brackish waters enter lower parts of rivers to overwinter in freshwater. Juveniles mostly feed on zooplankton. Feeds on benthic invertebrates, which are dug out of fine bottom sediments, and also often on molluscs. May shift to particle feeding or even filter feeding at high zooplankton abundance. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Rutilus rutilus.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
Berg, L. S. 1948-49. [Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries]. Vol. 1 ( 1948), vols. 2-3 ( 1949). Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva & Leningrad.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Kottelat, M. and Freyhof, J. 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland.
Molls, F. 1999. New insights into the migration and habitat use by bream and white bream in the floodplain of the River Rhine.
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Abramis brama. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 July 2015.|
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