|Scientific Name:||Miniopterus australis|
|Species Authority:||Tommes, 1858|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Identification of M. pusillus and M. australis is extremely difficult as they overlap on morphological characters. A number of New Guinea specimens identified as M. macrocneme, M. medius, and M. schreibersii were in fact M. australis (T. Reardon pers. comm.).
In the Philippines, there are three size classes of bats of the genus Miniopterus, and all of the smallest can be referred to Miniopterus australis, rather than M. pusillus (Koopman 1993, Heaney et al. 1998). The taxonomy of this species requires review (L. Heaney pers. comm. 2006).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Pennay, M., Thomson, B., Reardon, T., Kingston, T. & Sinaga, U.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority), Chanson, J. & Chiozza, F. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it has a very wide distribution, it is tolerant of a broad range of habitats (including agricultural and disturbed areas), has a presumed large population, and because it is not believed to be in decline.
|Range Description:||This widespread species ranges from the Philippines through the island of Java (Indonesia), Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), Sulawesi (Indonesia), Timor (East Timor and Indonesia), the Moluccan Islands (Indonesia), the Aru Islands (Indonesia), the island of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), the Bismarck Archipelago (Papua New Guinea), the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia to eastern Australia, including several Torres Strait Islands. It occurs throughout the Philippines except Babuyan/Batanes group with specimens recorded from Bongao, Bohol, Capiz, Catanduanes, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon (Bulacan, Kalinga (Heaney et al. 2004), and Rizal provinces), Mindanao (Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Maguindanao, and Zamboanga del Norte provinces), Negros, Panay, Polillo, and Siquijor (Heaney et al. 1998) being found from sea level to about 925 m asl (Heaney et al. 1998; Esselstyn et al. 2004; Heaney et al. 2004). The species has also been recorded from Samar (J. C. Gonzales pers. comm. 2006), Cebu (Paguntalan pers. comm. 2006) and on Isarog at 1,450 m asl (Sedlock unpubl. data). It ranges from sea level up to 1,500 m asl in New Guinea. Given that specimens of this species may have been misidentified as another species, it may be found to range more widely than is currently known (T. Reardon pers. comm.).|
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan); Malaysia; New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste; Vanuatu
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is generally a common species. Maternity colonies of hundreds of thousands of individuals may be encountered (Flannery 1995). In the Philippines, the species is common in appropriate habitat with caves (Heaney et al. 1998). It is also common in Sabah and elsewhere in Indonesia.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species roosts in colonies in caves and tunnels, and may also be found roosting in tree holes. It forages for insects in rainforest, Meleleuca swamps and dry sclerophyll forests (Strahan 1995; Flannery 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). It has a gestation period of about four and a half weeks after which a single young is born. The species may migrate seasonally.
In the Philippines, the species is often dependent on caves (Heaney et al. 1998, Esselstyn et al. 2004) where it forages over the canopy in secondary and primary lowland areas, including agricultural areas (Heaney et al. 1991; Lepiten 1995; Rickart et al. 1993; Sanborn 1952; Taylor 1934). It has also been documented in montane forest on Luzon (Heaney et al. 2004).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species, although it is presumably locally threatened by disturbance of maternity caves. In the Philippines, limestone quarrying is destroying roosting habitat and it is also threatened by disturbance caused by guano mining there, however, individuals reoccupy caves once the disturbance ceases.|
|Conservation Actions:||In view of its wide range, it is presumed to be present in a number of protected areas.|
Bonaccorso, F. 1998. Bats of Papua New Guinea. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USA.
Esselstyn, J. A., Widmann, P. and Heaney, L. R. 2004. The mammals of Palawan Island, Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117: 271-302.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of New Guinea. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA.
Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of the South-West Pacific and Moluccan Islands. Comstock/Cornell, Ithaca, Ny, USA.
Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.
Heaney, L. R., Balete, D. S., Gee, G. V., Lepiten-Tabao, M. V., Rickart, E. A. and Tabaranza Jr., B. R. 2005. Preliminary report on the mammals of Balbasang, Kaling Province, Luzon. Sylvatrop, The Philippine Forest Research Journal 13(2000): 51-62.
Heaney, L. R., Gonzales, P. C., Utzurrum, R. C. B. and Rickart, E. A. 1991. The mammals of Cataduanes Island: Implications for the biogeography of small land-bridge islands in the Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 104(2): 399-415.
Koopman, K. F. 1993. Order Chiroptera. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, pp. 137–241. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.
Lepiten, M. V. 1995. The Mammals of Siquijor Island, Central Philippines. Sylvatrop, The Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources 5: 1-17.
Rickart, E. A., Heaney, L. R., Heidman, P. D. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.
Sanborn, C. C. 1952. Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-1947. Fieldiana: Zoology 33: 89-158.
Strahan, R. 1995. The Mammals of Australia. Australian Museum / Reed Books, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia.
Taylor, E. H. 1934. Philippine land mammals. Manila.
|Citation:||Rosell-Ambal, G., Tabaranza, B., Pennay, M., Thomson, B., Reardon, T., Kingston, T. & Sinaga, U. 2008. Miniopterus australis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 March 2014.|
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