Mugil cephalus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Mugiliformes Mugilidae

Scientific Name: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Flathead Mullet, Black Mullet, Black True Mullet, Bright Mullet, Bully Mullet, Callifaver Mullet, Common Grey Mullet, Common Mullet, Flathead Greymullet, Flathead Grey Mullet, Grey Mullet, Haarder, Hardgut Mullet, Mangrove Mullet, Mullet, River Mullet, Sea Mullet, Springer
French Cabot, Carida, Caridou, Cremole, Meuil, Muge, Muge à Groose Tête, Muge Cabot, Muge Céphale, Mugo Fangous, Mujou, Mulet, Mulet à Grosse Tête, Mulet-cabot, Mulet Cabot, Mulet Jaune, Mulet Jeune, Poisson Queue Bleue, Testard, Testu
Spanish Albur, Bullûa, Cabeçut, Cabezudo, Cachamba, Capitán, Capiton, Cap Pla, Céfalo, Galupe, Iliça de Cap Gros, Iliça Sabada, Ilissa Lobarrera, Lebranche, Lisa, Lisa Cabezuda, Lisa Común, Lisa Pardete, Lisa Rayada, Lissa Amaria, Liza Cabezona, Lizarra, Lizza, Machu, Machuto, Mugil, Mugil Común, Mujol, Mule, Muxo, Pardete, Pordete
Mugil albula Linnaeus, 1766
Mugil ashanteensis Bleeker, 1863
Mugil cephalotus Valenciennes, 1836
Mugil dobula Günther, 1861
Mugil gelatinosus Klunzinger, 1872
Mugil grandis Castelnau, 1879
Mugil hypselosoma Ogilby, 1897
Mugil japonicus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845
Mugil lineatus Valenciennes, 1836
Mugil mexicanus Steindachner, 1876
Mugil muelleri Klunzinger, 1880
Mugil provensalis Risso, 1810
Mugil tang Bloch, 1794
Mugil vulpinus Nardo, 1847
Mugil berlandieri Girard [C. F.] 1858
Mugil borbonicus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836
Mugil catalarum Whitley [G. P.] 1951
Mugil ciliilabis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836
Mugil constantiae Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836
Mugil galapagensis Ebeling [A. W.] 1961
Mugil marginalis De Vis [C. W.] 1885
Mugil peruanus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946
Mugil plumieri Bloch [M. E.] 1794
Mugil rammelsbergii Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846
Mugil tongae Günther [A.] 1880
Mugil trichilus Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H. E.] 1875
Mugil crenilabis our Forsskål [P. S.] 1775
Myxus barnardi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1914
Myxus caecutiens Günther, 1876
Myxus superficialis Klunzinger, 1870
Myxus flavus Mohr [E.] 1927
Myxus lepidopterus Mohr [E.] 1927
Myxus niger Mohr [E.] 1927
Myxus pacificus Steindachner [F.] 1900
Myxus tincoides Mohr [E.] 1927
Sparus cetaceus Cabrera [A.], Pérez [L.] & Haenseler [F.] 1817

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2008-01-02
Assessor(s): Kottelat, M. & Freyhof, J.
Reviewer(s): Bogutskaya, N. & Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Larson, H. & Pippard, H.
This is a widespread species with no known major threats. It is listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widespread throughout the tropics and sub-tropical seas to warm temperate regions.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; American Samoa; Australia (Lord Howe Is., New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Bangladesh; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cook Islands; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; Fiji; France; French Polynesia; Georgia; Gibraltar; Greece; Guam; India; Indonesia; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kiribati; Lebanon; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Portugal; Réunion; Romania; Russian Federation; Samoa; Serbia; Seychelles; Slovenia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United States (Hawaiian Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is abundant in most areas, especially so in subtropical to warm temperate regions (less so in the tropics).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This species is pelagic near shores, it sometimes forages in lagoons, estuaries and lower courses of rivers and can tolerate freshwater. It is known to breed in its third year of life: adults school in estuaries then move out to sea to spawn in coastal surface water, before returning to estuaries and freshwater (Harrison and Senou 1999). Juveniles feed on zooplankton, larger individuals filter algae, detritus, sediment and small invertebrates.

Systems:Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is commonly cultivated as an aquaculture species for food (Harrison and Senou 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats currently known. Although it is a sought-after food fish, it is sold cultured as well as wild-caught. It forms half the commercial mullet catch in eastern Australia and Tonga (Harrison and Senou 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in a number of protected areas within its world-wide range.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.10. Marine Neritic - Estuaries
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.4. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Gandolfi, G., Zerunian, S., Torricelli, P. and Marconato, A. 1991. I pesci delle acque interne italiane. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma.

Harrison, I.J. and Senou, H. 1999. Order Mugiliformes. Mugilidae. Mullets. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific., pp. 2069-2108. FAO, Rome.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Thomson, J.M. 1997. The Mugilidae of the world. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 41: 457-562.

Citation: Kottelat, M. & Freyhof, J. 2012. Mugil cephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T135567A515308. . Downloaded on 21 October 2017.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided