Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus
|Scientific Name:||Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus|
|Species Authority:||Barabash-Nikiforov, 1935|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The subspecies D. d. ponticus was proposed on the basis of morphological features (Barabash 1935) that were later criticized as not being diagnostic (e.g. Kleinenberg 1956). However, comparative analyses using skull morphometrics (Amaha 1994) and nine microsatellite DNA loci (Natoli 2003 cited in IWC 2004) suggested that differences do exist between Black Sea and Mediterranean common dolphins, even though significant differentiation was not evident from a small sample of mitochondrial DNA (Natoli 2004). It is not possible to be definitive at present, but it seems likely that gene flow between the Black and Mediterranean Seas is rare or non-existent. Therefore, the subspecies was provisionally recognized for this assessment.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cde ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Birkun Jr., A.A|
|Reviewer(s):||Brownell Jr., R.L. and Gales, N. (Cetacean Red List Authority)|
The Black Sea Short-beaked Common Dolphin subspecies, D. d. ponticus, is assessed as Vulnerable based on criterion A2cde. There is no estimate of overall population size but preliminary data for some parts of the basin suggest that it is currently at least several 10,000s, and possibly 100,000.
|Range Description:||The range of common dolphins encompasses almost the entire Black Sea, including territorial waters and exclusive economic zones of Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine, and internal waters of Ukraine in Karkinitsky Bay (Kleinenberg 1956; Geptner et al. 1976; Birkun 2006) and Turkey including the Bosphorus Strait and Marmara Sea (Öztürk and Öztürk 1997). Common dolphins do not occur in the Azov Sea and normally avoid the Kerch Strait, although a single live stranding was recorded there in 1994 at the time of a morbillivirus epizootic (Birkun et al. 1999; see distribution map, Figure 1, in the supplementary material). There is no reliable information from the Dardanelles Straits connecting the Marmara and Aegean Seas, nor is there any reliable evidence of movement by common dolphins through the Turkish Straits System. |
[Note: It has been agreed that territorial waters of all six Black Sea countries constitute the 12-mile-wide aquatic strip along the coasts of the sea; marine boundaries of the countries coincide with the external (offshore) border of this strip. However, there are some areas where the sea runs deep inland (gulfs, bays, etc.), and in these places the 12-mile rule does not work. These water bodies are situated quite far from the state boundaries and constitute the so-called “internal [marine] waters” of the Black Sea countries.]
Native:Bulgaria; Georgia; Romania; Russian Federation; Turkey; Ukraine
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population size is unknown. Region-wide estimates based on strip transect surveys in the USSR (1967-1974; Zemsky and Yablokov 1974) and Turkey (1987; Çelikkale et al. 1989) have been shown to be fundamentally flawed for a number of methodological analytical reasons so their use as indicators of absolute abundance is unwarranted (e.g., IWC 1992, Buckland et al. 1992). Nevertheless, it is generally recognized that for almost the first two-thirds of the 20th century, the abundance of common dolphins in the Black Sea was far higher than that of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus ponticus, and harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena relicta (Tzalkin 1940, Kleinenberg 1956, Geptner et al. 1976).
Line transect surveys have been conducted recently to estimate common dolphin abundance in a few parts of the range (see Table 1 in supplementary material). The survey areas are small relative to the total range of the subspecies. Results suggest that current population size is at least several 10,000s, and possibly 100,000 or more.
By the mid 1960s, the population was depleted due to long-running overexploitation, which involved the killed of many 100,000s of common dolphins in the mid-20th century (IWC 1983; see “Threats”). The directed takes continued until 1983 when cetacean hunting finally ceased in Turkey. The numbers of animals taken were not recorded systematically or reliably, and therefore total removals have to be estimated indirectly. It can be inferred that the number of common dolphins was much reduced by the directed kills. It might be assumed that during the period from 1983-2005, the population was increasing. However, this may not be the case in view of mass mortality events (in 1990 and 1994) and the pronounced depletion of these dolphins’ primary prey species during the same period. The population has not fully recovered, and in fact it may have recovered only very little, from the depletion caused by hunting. Further decline seems likely if degradation of the Black Sea environment continues.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Common dolphins are distributed mainly offshore and visit shallow coastal waters following seasonal aggregations and regular mass migrations of their preferred prey, small pelagic fishes such as Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus) and Black Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus phalaericus) (Tzalkin 1940, Kleinenberg 1956, Geptner et al. 1976). Annual winter concentrations of anchovies in the southeastern Black Sea and, to a lesser degree, south of Crimea create favourable conditions for wintering concentrations of dolphins. Summer concentrations of sprats in the northwestern, northeastern and central Black Sea attract common dolphins to quite different feeding grounds. These cetaceans avoid waters with low salinity, and this may explain why they never occur in the Sea of Azov and, normally, in the Kerch Strait. The mean size of common dolphin groups recorded in 2003-05 varied from 2.9 to 5.4 (Krivokhizhin 2006 pers. comm.), and many such groups can be observed in close proximity to one other.|
Last century, the population was depleted because of directed takes. The total number of animals killed is unknown, but it was estimated that before the mid 1950s common dolphins comprised 94.8% of the total number of Black Sea cetaceans killed and processed in the former Soviet Union (Tzalkin 1940, Kleinenberg 1956). Based on this value, it was calculated that during the last five years of the cetacean fishery in the USSR and Bulgaria (1962-66), these two countries landed 121,395 common dolphins, while during the preceding 31 years (1931-61) a further 1,449,304 had been landed mainly by the USSR (Zemsky 1996). Between 1976 and 1981, D. d. ponticus was believed to account for 15-16% (or 37,500-40,000 individuals) of the Turkish catch, estimated for that period as 250,000 animals of all three species (IWC 1983).
Reduced prey availability has been considered an ongoing major threat to D. d. ponticus since the late 1980s (Bushuyev 2000). Of two mass mortality events that killed unknown but certainly large numbers of common dolphins in winter–spring 1990 and summer–autumn 1994 (Krivokhizhin and Birkun 1999), the latter was recognised as being the result of a morbillivirus epizootic (Birkun et al. 1999). However, both die-offs coincided with a drastic decline in the abundance of both principal prey species, anchovy and sprat, which has been blamed on overfishing, eutrophication (e.g. water hypoxia) and the explosive increase of the introduced ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (Zaitsev and Mamaev 1997). The total commercial catch of anchovies declined by 12-fold (from 468,800 tonnes in the 1987-88 fishing season to 39,100 tonnes in 1990-91), while landings of sprat fell by a factor of nearly eight (from 105,200 tonnes in 1989 to 13,800 tonnes in 1993) (Prodanov et al. 1997). This correlation between large die-offs of Black Sea common dolphins and prey scarcity could signify that reduced prey availability compromised the health of the dolphins and increased their susceptibility to viral infection.
Other known threats (bycatch in pelagic trawls, parasitic invasions) are of secondary importance (at least at present).
The species D. delphis is listed globally as Least Concern by IUCN. At the same time, the Mediterranean population is listed as Endangered (see Bearzi et al. 2003), and concerns regarding the Black Sea population were expressed in the IUCN/SSC 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan (Reeves et al. 2003).
Commercial killing of Black Sea common dolphins, as well as other Black Sea cetaceans, was banned in 1966 in the former USSR, Bulgaria and Romania, and in 1983 in Turkey. Black Sea states assumed certain international obligations to protect cetaceans as contracting parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Berne Convention), Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS). The common dolphin is included in EC Directive No.92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats of wild fauna and flora; D. delphis is listed in its Annex IV (Animal and Plant Species of Community Interest in Need of Strict Protection). In 2003 the IWC Scientific Committee’s Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans recommended that the Black Sea population should be managed for conservation as a distinct entity (IWC 2004).
The Strategic Action Plan for the Rehabilitation and Protection of the Black Sea (1996) envisages some special cetacean-oriented conservation and research actions. The common dolphin was included as Data Deficient in the Black Sea Red Data Book (1999). Nevertheless, it is listed as Endangered in the Provisional List of Species of Black Sea Importance, an annex to the Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol (2002) of the Bucharest Convention. The regional Conservation Plan for Black Sea Cetaceans prepared in accordance with the ACCOBAMS International Implementation Priorities for 2002-2006 (Notarbartolo di Sciara 2002) was adopted by the 3rd Meeting of Parties to ACCOBAMS (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 22-25 October 2007).
On a national level, Black Sea cetaceans, including common dolphins, are protected by environmental legislation and governmental decrees. Action plans for the conservation of Black Sea cetaceans were produced in Ukraine (2001) and Romania (2003) but they have no legal effect at present. The common dolphin is listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine. In Russia and Ukraine, Red Book inscription means appropriate monitoring and management programs should be implemented at state or national levels. Such a program has existed in Ukraine since 1999.
Amaha, A. 1994. Geographic variation of the Common Dolphin, Delphinus delphis (Odontoceti: Delphinidae). Ph.D. thesis, Tokyo University of Fisheries. 211 pp.
Barabash I.I. 1935. Delphinus delphis ponticus subspecies n. Bull. Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytateley Prirody (Biology Division) 44(5): 246-249.
Bearzi, G., Reeves, R.R., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Politi, E., Cañadas, A., Frantzis, A. and Mussi, B. 2003. Ecology, status and conservation of Short-beaked Common Dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammal Review. 33(34): 224-252.
Birkun Jr., A.A. 2006. Cetaceans. P.314-332. In: Y.P. Zaitsev, B.G. Aleksandrov and G.G. Minicheva (eds), The North-Western Part of the Black Sea: Biology and Ecology, pp. 701pp. (In Russian). Naukova Dumka, Kiev.
Birkun Jr., A.A., Krivokhizhin, S.V., Glazov, D.M., Shpak, O.V., Zanin, A.V. and Mukhametov, L.M. 2004. Abundance estimates of cetaceans in coastal waters of the northern Black Sea: Results of boat surveys in August-October 2003. Marine Mammals of the Holarctic: Collection of Scientific Papers after the 3rd International Conference: Pp.64-68. (Koktebel, Ukraine, 11-17 October 2004).
Birkun Jr., A., Krivokhizhin, S., Komakhidze, A., Mukhametov, L., Shpak, O., Goradze, I., Komakhidze, G. and Kryukova, A. 2006. Wintering concentrations of Black Sea cetaceans off the Crimean and Caucasian coasts. 20th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society. (Gdynia, 2-7 April 2006).
Birkun Jr, A., Kuiken, T., Krivokhizhin, S., Haines, D.M., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., van de Bildt, M.W., Joiris, C.R. and Siebert, U. 1999. Epizootic of morbilliviral disease in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis ponticus) from the Black Sea. Veterinary Records 144(4): 85-92.
Buckland, S.T., Smith, T.D. and Cattanach, K.L. 1992. Status of small cetacean populations in the Black Sea: Review of current information and suggestions for future research. Report Of The International Whaling Commission. 42: 513-516.
Bushuyev, S.G. 2000. Depletion of forage reserve as a factor limiting population size of Black Sea dolphins. Pp. 437-452. In: Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Areas and a Composite Utilization of Shelf Resources. Proceedings Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Sevastopol, (in Russian).
Çelikkale, M.S., Karaçam, H., Düzgünes, E., Ünsal, S. and Durukanoglu, H.F. 1989. Size and distribution of dolphin populations in the Black Sea. Doga Türk Zooloji Dergisi 13(3): 189-196.
Geptner, V.G., Chapsky, K.K., Arsenyev, V.A. and Sokolov, V.E. 1976. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume 2, Part 3: Pinnipeds and Toothed Whales. Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow. 718 pp (in Russian).
IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
IWC. 1983. Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans. Report Of The International Whaling Commission 33: 152-170.
IWC. 1992. Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans. Report Of The International Whaling Commission 42: 178-234.
IWC. 2004. Annex L. Report of the Sub-committee on Small Cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 6(Suppl.): 315-334.
Kleinenberg, S.E. 1956. Mammals of the Black and Azov Seas: Research Experience for Biology and Hunting. USSR Academy of Science Publishing House, Moscow. (in Russian).
Krivokhizhin, S., Birkun Jr., A., Shpak O. and Mukhametov, L. 2006. “Offshore” harbour porpoises in the central Black Sea. 20th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society. Gdynia, 2-7 April 2006.
Krivokhizhin S.V. and Birkun Jr., A.A. 1999. Strandings of cetaceans along the coasts of Crimean peninsula in 1989-1996. In: P.G.H. Evans and E.C.M. Parsons (eds), European Research on Cetaceans – 12: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conf. European Cetacean Society, pp. 59-62. Monaco, 20-24 Jan 1998.
Natoli, A. 2004. Molecular ecology of bottlenose (Tursiops sp.) and common (Delphinus sp.) dolphins. PhD thesis. University of Durham, UK.
Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2002. International Implementation Priorities for 2002-2006. Proceedings of the 1st Session of the Meeting of the Parties to ACCOBAMS: pp 51-62. (Monaco, 28 February – 2 March 2002).
Öztürk, B. and Öztürk, A.A. 1997. Preliminary study on dolphin occurrence in the Turkish straits system. European Research on Cetaceans 11: 79-82.
Prodanov, K., Mikhailov, K., Daskalov, G., Maxim, C., Chashchin, A., Arkhipov, A., Shlyakhov, V., Ozdamar, E. 1997. Environmental Management of Fish Resources in the Black Sea and their Rational Exploitation. Studies and Reviews of the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean. FAO, Rome.
Reeves, R.R., Smith, B.D., Crespo, E.A. and di Sciara, G.N. (compilers) 2003. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises: 2002-2010 Conservation Action Plan for the World's Cetaceans. IUCN/SSC Cetacean Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Taylor, B.L., Chivers, S.J., Larese, J. and Perrin, W. 2007. Generation Length and Percent Mature Estimates for IUCN Assessments of Cetaceans. Administrative report LJ-07-01 available from Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, 8604 La Jolla Shores Dr., La Jolla, CA 92038, USA.
Tzalkin, V.I. 1940. Certain observations on biology of Azov and Black Sea dolphins. Bulleten’ Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytateley Prirody (Biology Division) 49(1): 61-70. (in Russian).
Zaitsev, Y. and Mamaev, V. 1997. Marine Biological Diversity in the Black Sea: A Study of Change and Decline. United Nations Publishers, New York.
Zemsky, V.A. 1996. History of the Russian fishery of dolphins in the Black Sea. Pp. 46-48. In: B. Öztürk (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Symposium on the Marine Mammals of the Black Sea, pp. 120. (Istanbul, Turkey, 27-30 Jun 1994).
Zemsky, V.A. and Yablokov, A.V. 1974. Catch statistics, short history of exploitation and present status of Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus and Phocoena phocoena in the Black Sea. FAO/ACMRR Group II Meeting, La Jolla, USA, 16-19 December 1974.
|Citation:||Birkun Jr., A.A. 2008. Delphinus delphis ssp. ponticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133729A3875256.Downloaded on 25 April 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|