|Scientific Name:||Siderastrea glynni|
|Species Authority:||Budd & Guzman, 1994|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Guzmán, H. & Edgar, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Livingstone, S., Polidoro, B. & Smith, J. (Global Marine Species Assessment)|
This species has an area of occupancy of less than 10 km², is severely fragmented, and is known from only one location. After extensive but not exhaustive surveys, this species is known from only one place in the wild, and currently exists only in a captive cultivated state. This species is Critically Endangered, rather than extinct in the wild, as there is a possibility that it exists elsewhere in the wild and is yet undiscovered. In addition, there are current plans to reintroduce captive individuals into the wild.
|Range Description:||Siderastrea glynni is an endemic species of Panama; only known from a single locality, Uraba Island, Panama Bay, near the Pacific opening of the Panama Canal (Budd and Guzmán 1994, Forsman et al. 2005). S. glynni was discovered in September 1992 (Budd and Guzmán 1994).|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Siderastrea glynni is an extremely rare endemic species in Panama; only five individual colonies have ever been discovered, and only four currently survive (Budd and Guzmán 1994, Maté 2003, Forsman et al. 2005). Following the discovery of this species (i.e., September 1992), extensive surveys in presumably suitable habitats have failed to reveal additional populations (Glynn 2001). Additionally, since the four living colonies were moved to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) aquaria due to a bleached and unhealthy state of the corals, no living colonies are presently known in the wild (Maté 2003, Fenner 2001, Glynn 2001).
After the removal of S. glynni from the wild, signs of bleaching stopped with temperature control; moreover the colonies are now in good health (Guzmán pers. comm.). Attempts made by H. Guzmán to propagate this corals in the STRI aquaria have produced 11 propagules (Guzmán pers. comm., Fenner 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The known colonies of S. glynni were reported to be unattached and occur along the upper sand-coral rubble reef slope at a depth of 7 to 8.5 m (Budd and Guzmán 1994). Its current habitat is restricted to the aquarium of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Fenner 2001, Glynn 2001, Maté 2003).
The genus Siderastrea contains only five extant species (Van-Oppen et al. 2006). Budd and Guzmán (1994) hypothesized that S. glynni originated from a rare dispersal event from the central Pacific. However, new studies conducted by Forsman et al. (2005) have revealed that it is more likely that S. glynni originated by a breach of the Panama Isthmus, or by a contemporary introduction by ship.
Glynn (1997) suggested that S. glynni could be an ENSO immigrant, and that colonies perhaps settled and started growing sometime between 1982 and 1985. Glynn (1994) agued that this could be possible if there is a source population located in the Gulf of Panama or elsewhere in the equatorial eastern Pacific (Glynn 1997).
During the 1997-98 El Niño event, the four S. glynni colonies started to deteriorate, displaying bleaching and tissue loss (Fenner 2001, Glynn 2001). Due to the unhealthy state of the corals, the four colonies were moved to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute aquaria (Maté 2003). However, the original rareness of this species has been related to unknown causes, and not to the ENSO event (Glynn 1997). Nevertheless, such small populations typically display low genetic variability, thus lowering their capacity to survive environmental perturbations (Glynn 1997).
Other threats to this species include coastal development and oil production and transport in the Gulf of Panama (Guzmán pers comm.).
In general, the major threat to corals is global climate change, in particular, temperature extremes leading to bleaching and increased susceptibility to disease, increased severity of ENSO events and storms, and ocean acidification. In addition to global climate change, corals are also threatened by disease and a number of localized threats. The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and is a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the Great Barrier Reef were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.
Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.
All corals are listed on CITES Appendix II.
Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.
Aeby, G.S., Work, T., Coles, S., and Lewis, T. 2006. Coral Disease Across the Hawaiian Archipelago. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.
Aronson, R.B. and Precht, W.F. 2001 b. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460: 25-38.
Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D., 2007. Thermal Stress and Coral Cover as Drivers of Coral Disease Outbreaks Sweatman, H., and Melendy, A.M. PLoS Biol 5(6): e124.
Colgan, M.W. 1987. Coral Reef Recovery on Guam (Micronesia) After Catastrophic Predation by Acanthaster Planci. Ecology 68(6): 1592-1605.
Green, E.P. and Bruckner, A.W. 2000. The significance of coral disease epizootiology for coral reef conservation. Biological Conservation 96: 347-361.
Jacobson, D.M. 2006. Fine Scale Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of a Marshall Islands Coral Disease Outbreak: Evidence for Temperature Forcing. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 87(36): suppl.
Patterson, K.L., Porter, J.W., Ritchie, K.B., Polson, S.W., Mueller E., Peters, E.C., Santavy, D.L., Smith, G.W. 2002. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99: 8725-8730.
Porter, J.W., Dustan, P., Jaap, W.C., Patterson, K.L., Kosmynin, V., Meier, O.W., Patterson, M.E., and Parsons, M. 2001. Patterns of spread of coral disease in the Florida Keys. Hydrobiologia 460(1-3): 1-24.
Pratchett, Morgan S. 2007. Feeding Preferences of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) under Controlled Conditions of Food Availability. Pacific Science 61(1): 113-120.
Reyes-Bonilla, H. 2002. Checklist of valid names and synonyms of the stony corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from eastern Pacific. Journal of Natural History: 1-13.
Sutherland, K.P., Porter, J.W., and Torres, C. 2004. Disease and immunity in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals. Marine ecology progress series 266: 273-302.
Wallace, C. C. 1999. Staghorn Corals of the World: a revison of the coral genus Acropora. CSIRO, Collingwood.
Weil, E. 2004. Coral reef diseases in the wider Caribbean. In: E. Rosenberg and Y. Loya (eds), Coral Health and Diseases, pp. 35-68. Springer Verlag, NY.
Weil, E. 2006. Coral, Ocotocoral and sponge diversity in the reefs of the Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic. Rev. Bio. Trop. 54(2): 423-443.
Wilkinson, C. 2004. Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Willis, B., Page, C and E. Dinsdale. 2004. Coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef. In: E. Rosenber and Y. Loya (eds), Coral Health and Disease, pp. 69-104. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
|Citation:||Guzmán, H. & Edgar, G. 2008. Siderastrea glynni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|