Anyperodon leucogrammicus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Anyperodon leucogrammicus
Species Authority: (Valenciennes, 1828)
Common Name(s):
English Slender Grouper, Whiteline Group, Whitelined Cod, White-lined Grouper, White-lined Rockcod, White-lined Rock-cod, Slender Rockcod
French Cheval De Bois, Loche A Lignes Blanches, Merou A Lignes Blanches, Merou Elegant
Spanish Mero Elegante
Anyperodon leucogammicus (Valencienes, 1828)
Anyperodon leucogramicus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Anyperodon leucogrammiscus (Valenciennes, 1828)
Serranus leucogrammicus Valenciennes, 1828
Serranus micronotatus Rüppell, 1838
Serranus urophthalmus Bleeker, 1855
Taxonomic Notes: Recent name change to Epinephelus leucogrammicus (Craig and Hastings 2007), however Anyperodon leucogrammicus is retained here until there is full agreement on this revision.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Heemstra, P.C., Pollard, D., Samoilys, M., Yeeting, B. & Choat, J.H.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Anyperodon leucogrammicus is listed as Least Concern on the basis of very wide range and no evidence for significant decline. Currently very little information is available for this species' biology and fisheries.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Anyperodon leucogrammicus is an Indo-Pacific species widely distributed from the Red Sea south to Mozambique, east to the Phoenix Islands, north to Japan, and south to Australia (southern Queensland and Heron Island). Its distribution probably includes all the islands of the tropical Indian Ocean. It is also found on the coast of Oman and Aldabra (Seychelles).
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bahrain; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: General
Anyperodon leucogrammicus is widespread, but not abundant. There is no evidence of decline, but there is currently insufficient data for this species. Possible declines may be associated with habitat loss or degradation of coral reefs.

Fisheries-dependent data
The slender grouper is uncommon in catches in Pohnei, where is was shown to contribute only to the spear fishery and occurred in only 3.2% of catches overall (Rhodes and Tupper 2007).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: General
Anyperodon leucogrammicus is a reef-associated, non-migratory species that inhabits coral rich areas (5 to 80 m) and clear waters on lagoon and seaward reefs.

Feeds mainly on fishes and probably on crustaceans. The distinctive blue and gold striped juveniles are mimics of the wrasse Halichoeres purpurescens. Juveniles mimic some of the small lined wrasses of the genus Halichoeres or dark damsels in surge zones. This allows the species to approach their prey.
Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In some areas, there are major threats to Anyperodon leucogrammicus from overfishing, but in consideration of its overall range this is likely not a threat to the species overall. The species is not specifically targeted for the commercial fishery, but appears in Hong Kong live fish markets occasionally. Juveniles are targeted for the aquarium trade. Global warming may well affect the abundance and distribution of the species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Anyperodon leucogrammicus occurs in marine protected areas in various areas, including Palau, Malaysia, Philippines, Pohnpei, East Africa (Kenya) and Australia.

Bibliography [top]

Craig, M.T. and Hastings, P.A. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with a revised classification of the Epinephelini. Ichthyological Research 54(1): 1-17.

Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1986. Serranidae. In: In: M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds) (eds), Smith's Sea Fishes, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Gernany.

Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Morgans, J.F.C. 1982. Serranid fishes of Kenya and Tanzania. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 46(1): 44.

Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Randall, J.E. and Heemstra, P.C. 1991. Revision of the Indo-Pacific groupers: (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae): with descriptions of five new species.

Rhodes, K.L. and Tupper, M.H. 2007. A preliminary market-based survey of the Pohnpei, Micronesia, grouper (Serranidae: Epinehelinae) fishery reveals unsustainable fishing practices.

Citation: Heemstra, P.C., Pollard, D., Samoilys, M., Yeeting, B. & Choat, J.H. 2008. Anyperodon leucogrammicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.
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