Epinephelus miliaris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Epinephelidae

Scientific Name: Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes, 1830)
Common Name(s):
English Netfin Grouper, Netfin Rockcod
French Merou Abielle, Vielle Abielle, Vielle Fou-fou
Spanish Mero Colmenar
Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus diktiophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir, 1961
Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes, 1830)
Serranus diktiophorus Bleeker, 1856
Serranus gaimardi Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus miliaris Valenciennes, 1830

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-01-01
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)
Epinephelus miliaris is evaluated as a species of Least Concern because it is widespread and there is no evidence to support a decline of >30 %. However, if its coastal habitats (mangrove forests, seagrass beds, bays, and coral reefs) continue to be destroyed, its conservation status will worsen.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Epinephelus miliaris is an Indo-West Pacific insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands (FishBase).
Countries occurrence:
American Samoa; Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Comoros; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):180
Upper depth limit (metres):5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Epinephelus miliaris is typically found in low densities. Fry et al. (2006) caught only four individuals (mean SL = 320 mm ±37; mean weight 835 ±258 g) in an undisturbed volcanic seamount reef, Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:General
Epinephelus miliaris is a reef-associated species found in a variety of habitats. Juveniles (8 to 21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m.

Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Morgans 1982).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Epinephelus miliaris is threatened by overfishing and is taken by subsistence and incidental fisheries. Destruction of habitats is also a concern, including loss of mangrove forests, trawling on bays (soft-bottom environment), reclamation of seagrass beds and sedimentation and fish-bombing on coral reefs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Epinephelus miliaris is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.7. Marine Intertidal - Mangrove Submerged Roots
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Fry, G.C., Brewer, D.T. and Venables, W.N. 2006. Vulnerability of demersal fishes to commercial fishing: Evidence from a study around a tropical seamount in Papua New Guinea. Fisheries Research 81: 126-141.

Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO, Rome.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Morgans, J.F.C. 1982. Serranid fishes of Kenya and Tanzania. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 46(1): 44.

Randall, J.E. and Heemstra, P.C. 1991. Revision of the Indo-Pacific groupers: (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae): with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 20: 1-332.

Citation: Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y. 2008. Epinephelus miliaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T132756A3442277. . Downloaded on 27 May 2018.
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