|Scientific Name:||Epinephelus miliaris|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1830)|
Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus diktiophorus (Bleeker, 1856)
Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir, 1961
Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes, 1830)
Serranus diktiophorus Bleeker, 1856
Serranus gaimardi Valenciennes, 1830
Serranus miliaris Valenciennes, 1830
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Epinephelus miliaris is evaluated as a species of Least Concern because it is widespread and there is no evidence to support a decline of >30 %. However, if its coastal habitats (mangrove forests, seagrass beds, bays, and coral reefs) continue to be destroyed, its conservation status will worsen.
|Range Description:||Epinephelus miliaris is an Indo-West Pacific insular species ranging from East Africa (excluding the Red Sea and Persian Gulf) to the Gilbert Islands and Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands (FishBase).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Comoros; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Epinephelus miliaris is typically found in low densities. Fry et al. (2006) caught only four individuals (mean SL = 320 mm ±37; mean weight 835 ±258 g) in an undisturbed volcanic seamount reef, Lihir Island Group, Papua New Guinea.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Epinephelus miliaris is a reef-associated species found in a variety of habitats. Juveniles (8 to 21 cm SL) have been taken from mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m; adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 180 m.
Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod (Morgans 1982).
|Major Threat(s):||Epinephelus miliaris is threatened by overfishing and is taken by subsistence and incidental fisheries. Destruction of habitats is also a concern, including loss of mangrove forests, trawling on bays (soft-bottom environment), reclamation of seagrass beds and sedimentation and fish-bombing on coral reefs.|
|Conservation Actions:||Epinephelus miliaris is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range.|
Fry, G.C., Brewer, D.T. and Venables, W.N. 2006. Vulnerability of demersal fishers to commercial fishing: Evidence from a study around a tropical seamount in Papua New Guinea. Fisheries Research 81: 126-141.
Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Morgans, J.F.C. 1982. Serranid fishes of Kenya and Tanzania. Ichthyological Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 46(1): 44.
Randall, J.E. and Heemstra, P.C. 1991. Revision of the Indo-Pacific groupers: (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae): with descriptions of five new species.
|Citation:||Cabanban, A.S. & Sadovy, Y. 2008. Epinephelus miliaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2015.|