|Scientific Name:||Alphestes immaculatus Breder, 1936|
Alphestes fasciatus Hildebrand, 1946
Alphestes galapagensis Fowler, 1944
Epinephelus afer (non Bloch, 1793)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A., Rocha, L. & Heemstra, P.C.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Alphestes immaculatus is assessed as Least Concern since it is a widespread and common species, not currently known to be in significant decline or targeted by commercial fisheries.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Alphestes immaculatus is distributed within the eastern Pacific and ranges from the northern Gulf of California (Mexico) to southern Peru, including the Galápagos Islands.|
Native:Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Disputed Territory; Ecuador; El Salvador; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States Minor Outlying Islands
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – southeast; Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Alphestes immaculatus is more common in north of its range and becomes less common in the southern extent of its range where Alphestes multiguttatus becomes the more common of the two species. The species is not known to be in decline.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||General|
Alphestes immaculatus is a demersal, non-migratory species found in shallow water. Pacific Mutton Hamlet are a cryptically coloured, secretive species that inhabit seagrass and rocky reef areas. Individuals are sedentary during the day, hiding in crevices or lying among seaweed, and rely on their effective camouflage to escape detection. It sometimes partly covers itself with sand.
Pacific Mutton Hamlet are nocturnal predators that feed mainly on benthic crustaceans.
It is tolerant of a degree of habitat degradation.
|Major Threat(s):||Alphestes immaculatus is not currently a target of the commercial fishery, but it is caught in the artisanal fishery.|
|Conservation Actions:||Alphestes immaculatus occurs in some protected areas throughout it range.|
|Amended reason:||This amended version of the 2008 assessment was created as Guadeloupe was accidentally recorded as a country of occurrence and has now been removed.|
Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Thomson, D.A., Findley, L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N. 2000. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez: The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California . University of Texas Press, Austin.
|Citation:||Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A., Rocha, L. & Heemstra, P.C. 2017. Alphestes immaculatus (amended version of 2008 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T132754A118694361.Downloaded on 25 June 2018.|