|Scientific Name:||Menidia conchorum|
|Species Authority:||Hildebrand & Ginsburg, 1927|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke, R. (eds). 2015. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 1 October 2015. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 1 October 2015).|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is currently a publication in review on the species delineation of Menidia conchorum and Menidia peninsulae (S. O'Leary pers. comm. 2013).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Collette, B., Grubbs, D., Pezold, F., Simons, J., Caruso, J., Carlson, J., McEachran, J.D., Brenner, J., Tornabene, L., Chakrabarty, P., Robertson, R., Chao, L., Vega-Cendejas, M., Tolan, J., Carpenter, K.E., Munroe, T., Jelks, H. & Espinosa-Perez, H.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Buchanan, J. & Harwell, H.|
This species is endemic to the Gulf of Mexico where it is restricted to patchily distributed tidal lagoons in the Florida Keys between Key Largo and Key West. It may be locally abundant at times. Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 3,802 km² and its estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 2,611 km², but since it is patchily distributed across this area, its AOO is likely less than 500 km². These estimates meet the thresholds for Endangered under criteria B1 and B2. Its entire range is found within the Florida Keys National Sanctuary, however, coastal development continues to degrade or destroy its habitat. Therefore, it is assessed as Endangered (EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)).
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is only known from the Gulf of Mexico in the Florida Keys from Key West to Key Largo (Chernoff 2002). Its distribution is patchy and shifts locations in brackish ponds from year to year (Getter 1981).
Its estimated EOO is 3,802 km² (based on a minimum convex polygon drawn around the extent of its range on a 0-5 m bathymetric layer). Its estimated AOO is 2,611 km² (calculated by clipping the distribution polygon to the 0-5 m bathymetric layer extracted from ETOPO), but since it is patchily distributed across this area, its AOO is actually likely to be less than 500 km².
Native:United States (Florida)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – western central
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||499|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||3802|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Number of Locations:||1-5|
|Lower depth limit (metres):||5|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Little is known about the population status of this species. It is presumed to be declining due to habitat degradation and loss. Conover (2000) collected over 2,000 specimens at 29 sites in 1999. A review on the genetic diversity and changes in the effective population size over a period of about 10 years is presently underway (S. O'Leary pers. comm. 2013).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This pelagic-neritic species inhabits quiet waters, coastal ponds, and semi-enclosed tidal shallow lagoons (Chernoff 2002). Its maximum size is 6.1 cm total length (TL).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
|Major Threat(s):||Key Silverside is threatened by habitat loss throughout its range. Coastal development activity has reduced a number of sites especially ponds and formerly occupied areas (Gilbert 1978, Getter 1981, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission 2011). It may be susceptible to impacts from sea level rise (Reece et al. 2013).|
This species' entire known range is found within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Research is needed on its population status, biology, ecology, and impact of potential threats.
Chernoff, B. 2002. Atherinopsidae - New World silversides. In: Carpenter, K.E. (ed.), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic, pp. 1090-1103. FAO, Rome.
Conover, D.O., Munch, S. and Lankford Jr., T.E. 2000. Current status of the Key Silverside, Menidia conchorum, in southern Florida. U.S. Geological Survey.
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2011. Supplemental information for the Key Silverside. Biological Status Review Report.
Getter, C.D. 1981. Ecology and survival of the key silverside, Menidia conchorum, an atherinid fish endemic to the Florida keys. PhD Dissertation. University of Miami.
Gilbert, C.R. 1978. Menidia conchorum. In: P.C.H. Prichard (ed.), Rare and endangered biota of Florida. 4: Fishes, University Presses of Florida.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Reece, J.S., Noss, R.F., Oetting, J., Hoctor, T. and Volk, M. 2013. A vulnerability assessment of 300 species in Florida: threats from sea level rise, land use and climate change. PLoS ONE 8(11): 0658. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080658.
|Citation:||Collette, B., Grubbs, D., Pezold, F., Simons, J., Caruso, J., Carlson, J., McEachran, J.D., Brenner, J., Tornabene, L., Chakrabarty, P., Robertson, R., Chao, L., Vega-Cendejas, M., Tolan, J., Carpenter, K.E., Munroe, T., Jelks, H. & Espinosa-Perez, H. 2015. Menidia conchorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T13145A512306. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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