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Melanobatrachus indicus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Microhylidae

Scientific Name: Melanobatrachus indicus
Species Authority: Beddome, 1878

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Annotations:
Needs updating
Assessor(s): S.D. Biju, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe, Sushil Dutta, Chelmala Srinivasulu, S.P. Vijayakumar
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Justification:
Listed as Endangered, because its Extent of Occurrence of less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat outside of protected areas..
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the southern Western Ghats of India, where it is known only from three sites: Kalakad in the Agasthyamala Hills; the Indira Ghandi National Park in the Anaimalai Hills, Tamil Nadu; and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala. The altitudinal range of the species is reported to be 900-1,200m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is an extremely rare species that was only recently rediscovered. The population is fragmented and is presumed to be declining.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is terrestrial and associated with leaf-litter, rocks and other ground cover of moist evergreen tropical forest; it has been collected in patches of degraded tropical forest close to primary forest. It breeds in pools in streams where calling males have been observed (Daltry and Martin 1997). There is little further information on its breeding biology or larval ecology.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is conversion of forested areas to cultivated land (including eucalyptus, coffee, and tea plantations); the development of dams within the region may pose an additional threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It has been recorded from several protected areas, including: Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve and Indira Gandhi National Park, and from Periyar Tiger Reserve.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Unknown  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Future    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Biju, S.D. 2001. A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Daltry, J.C. and Martin, G. 1997. Rediscovery of the black narrow-mouth frog Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878. Hamadryad: 57-58.

Dutta, S.K. 1997. Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka. Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar.

Ishwar, N.M. 2000. Melanobatrachus indicus Beddome, 1878, resighted at the Anaimalai Hills, southern India. Hamadryad: 50-51.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Vasudevan, K. 1997. Rediscovery of the black microhylid Melanobatrachus indicus (Beddome, 1878). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society: 170-171.

Vasudevan, K. 2000. An amazing frog from the Western Ghats. Biodiversity India: 12.


Citation: S.D. Biju, Karthikeyan Vasudevan, Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe, Sushil Dutta, Chelmala Srinivasulu, S.P. Vijayakumar. 2004. Melanobatrachus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T13032A3406563. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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