Madoqua kirkii 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Madoqua kirkii
Species Authority: (Günther, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Kirk's Dik-dik
Madoqua damarensis (Günther, 1880)
Taxonomic Notes: Molecular evidence (Kumamoto et al. 1994; Kingswood and Kumamoto 1997) strongly suggests that Madoqua kirkii, as traditionally recognized, is a complex of species, comprising what may effectively represent four distinct species: M. damarensis in Namibia and Angola, and three species, M. cavendishi, M. kirkii and M. thomasi in East Africa (see Brotherton in press for review). We provisionally continue to recognize a single species (as per Grubb 2005), recognizing this may require reassessment in the near future.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Listed as Least Concern as the species remains widespread and locally common throughout much of its historical distribution, and is present in a number of protected areas. If current trends continue, the conservation status of Kirk’s Dik-dik is unlikely to deteriorate. It should persist in the long term in large numbers in extensive areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Kirk’s dikdik occurs in two separate regions, from southern Somalia to central Tanzania and in northern Namibia and adjoining south-western Angola (Kingswood and Kumamoto 1997; East 1999; Brotherton in press).
Countries occurrence:
Angola (Angola); Kenya; Namibia; Somalia; Tanzania, United Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population density estimates of Kirk’s dikdik were reviewed by Kingswood and Kumamoto (1997), East (1999) and Brotherton (in press). East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 971,000 animals. This suggests that its total numbers may be in the hundreds of thousands or millions. The population trend is stable over large parts of the range, but is decreasing in some densely settled areas.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from dry scrubland to thickets within moister savanna woodlands and grasslands. (East 1999).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no obvious major threats to Kirk's Dik-dik, although they have been affected by the expansion of agricultural settlement and excessive hunting in some areas (East 1999). However, their ability to exist in scrub and over-grazed areas has made their populations resilient to the vegetation changes that have accompanied human population growth, and may have even favoured them in the short-term (Brotherton in press).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of Kirk's Dik-dik includes protected areas such as Bush Bush N.P. (Somalia), Samburu, Meru, Tsavo, Masai Mara, Amboseli and Lake Nakuru National Parks (Kenya), Serengeti, Arusha, Tarangire and Mkomazi (Tanzania) and Etosha (Namibia). It is also common on private farmland in Namibia (East 1999). The most urgent research action required is a thorough evaluation of the taxonomic status of the identified cytotypes; if these are confirmed to represent distinct species, then the status of the various forms will require reassessment.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Marginal  
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Brotherton, P. N. M. 2013. Madoqua kirkii. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Kingswood, S. C. and Kumamoto, A. T. 1997. Madoqua kirkii. Mammalian Species 569: 1-10.

Kumamoto, A. T., Kingswood, S. C. and Hugo W. 1994. Chromosomal divergence in allopatric populations of Kirk’s dik-dik, Madoqua kirki (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Journal of Mammalogy 75: 357-364.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2008. Madoqua kirkii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12670A3373247. . Downloaded on 28 June 2016.
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