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Madoqua kirkii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Madoqua kirkii
Species Authority: (Günther, 1880)
Common Name(s):
English Kirk's Dik-dik
French Dik-dik de Kirk
Synonym(s):
Madoqua damarensis (Günther, 1880)
Taxonomic Notes: Molecular evidence (Kumamoto et al. 1994, Kingswood and Kumamoto 1997) strongly suggests that Madoqua kirkii, as traditionally recognized, is a complex of species, comprising what may effectively represent four distinct species: M. damarensis in Namibia and Angola, and three species, M. cavendishi, M. kirkii and M. thomasi in East Africa (see Brotherton 2013 for review). We provisionally continue to recognize a single species (as per Grubb 2005), recognizing this may require reviewing in the near future.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Justification:
The species is not currently close to meeting any threshold for threatened status. It remains widespread and locally common throughout much of its historical distribution, and is present in a number of protected areas. If current trends continue, the conservation status of Kirk’s Dik-dik is unlikely to deteriorate. It should persist in the long term in large numbers in extensive areas of Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia.

The same status would be likely to apply to all the currently named subspecies.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Kirk’s Dik-dik occurs in two separate regions: East Africa, from southern Somalia to central Tanzania and in Southern Africa from northern Namibia and adjoining parts of south-western Angola (East 1999, Brotherton 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Kenya; Namibia; Somalia; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population density estimates of Kirk’s Dik-dik were reviewed by Kingswood and Kumamoto (1997), East (1999) and Brotherton (2013). East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 971,000 animals and suggested its total numbers may be in the hundreds of thousands or even millions. The population trend is stable over large parts of the range, but is decreasing in some densely settled areas. Site densities reported range from 24/km2 in Serengeti NP to 109/km2 in Tsavo East (Brotherton 2013).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It occurs in a wide variety of mainly arid habitats, from dense thorn scrub to thickets and open woodland; also found on rocky hills in savanna habitats, riverine woodland and wetter areas in W Kenya and Tanzania (Brotherton 2013).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):3.6

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no obvious major threats to Kirk's Dik-dik, although they have been affected by the expansion of agricultural settlement and excessive hunting in some areas (East 1999). However, their ability to exist in scrub and over-grazed areas has made their populations resilient to the vegetation changes that have accompanied human population growth, and may have even favoured them in the short-term (Brotherton 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The range of Kirk's Dik-dik includes protected areas Samburu, Meru, Tsavo, Masai Mara, Amboseli and Lake Nakuru National Parks (Kenya), Serengeti, Arusha, Tarangire and Mkomazi (Tanzania) and Etosha NP (Namibia). It is also common on private farmland in Namibia (East 1999). The most urgent research action required is a thorough evaluation of the taxonomic status of the identified cytotypes; if these are confirmed to represent distinct species, then the status of the various forms will require reassessment.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Unknown
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Brotherton, P. N. M. 2013. Madoqua kirkii Kirk's Dik-dik. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Bloomsbury, London, UK.

East, R. (Compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Kingswood, S. C. and Kumamoto, A. T. 1997. Madoqua kirkii. Mammalian Species 569: 1-10.

Kumamoto, A. T., Kingswood, S. C. and Hugo W. 1994. Chromosomal divergence in allopatric populations of Kirk’s dik-dik, Madoqua kirki (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Journal of Mammalogy 75: 357-364.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Madoqua kirkii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T12670A50190709. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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