Madoqua saltiana 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Madoqua saltiana
Species Authority: (de Blainville, 1816)
Common Name(s):
English Salt's Dik-dik
French Dik-dik de Salt
Antilope saltiana de Blainville, 1816
Taxonomic Notes: At least five subspecies have been proposed, based on phenotypic variation: M. s. saltiana, M. s. hararensis, M. s. lawrancei, M. s. phillipsi, and M. s. swaynei (Yalden 2013). The latter has been regarded as a full species by some authors. Clarification through molecular genetic analysis of these relationships, and of the whole Madoqua species complex, is highly desirable. The distribution of the species is contiguous and boundaries between the named subspecies are not clearly delineated. Only the species is assessed.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Although some local declines in numbers and range can be inferred from the effects of hunting and habitat degradation, populations appear to be stable in several other parts of the range. There is no evidence to suggest that an overall decline is close to a threshold that would qualify for threatened status under criterion A. For this reason the species is confirmed Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to arid and semiarid parts of north-east Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia) with marginal occurrence in south-east Sudan, possibly just reaches the Mandera district in the border region of north-east Kenya, but there are no confirmed records (East 1999, Yalden 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) estimated the total population at 485,600 individuals, based on an average density of two individuals per km² over an area of occupancy of 242,800 km² and suggested that the order of magnitude could be in the hundreds of thousands, and that the population was generally stable. Several authors have reported much higher local densities. Laurent and Laurent (2002) said that Salt’s Dik-dik is still widespread in Djibouti, but has declined over the last 20 years. Wilhelmi et al. (2006) found this species quite common in surveyed areas of the Ogaden (Ethiopia). Widespread and common in Somaliland (northern Somalia) (Mallon and Jama 2015). Sparsely distributed in the northern Danakil of Eritrea (H. Yohannes pers. comm., Mallon 2014).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Found in various types of desert and semi-desert scrub and bushland, also recorded in gardens in Hargeisa, Somaliland; occurs from sea level to over 2,000 m in Daallo Forest, Somaliland (Yalden et al. 1984, Mallon and Jama 2015).
Generation Length (years):3.7

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In the early 2000s dik-diks of all species were photographed at animal markets in some Gulf States reportedly imported as pets and as prey for falconry and some shipments of skins were confiscate but this may have been a temporary phenomenon.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Subsistence hunting is a factor across some parts of the range. Hunting pressure may be heavier in areas of civil and military conflict. In some parts of Somalia, hunting of all dik-dik species is more intensive, with meat, skins and live animals exported to the Gulf states (Amir 2006). In Somaliland (northern Somalia) the species was common and local people said they did not hunt it. Habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing by domestic livestock affects areas across north-east Africa, and was reported to have caused declines in Djibouti (Laurent and Laurent 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species occurs in a few protected areas (e.g. Awash and Yangudi Rassa National Parks in Ethiopia). It remains common in Somaliland (northern Somalia) where it is apparently not hunted, and the widespread absence of village and feral dogs is very likely another positive factor there (Mallon and Jama 2015).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):1-10
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

Amir, G. A. 2006. Wildlife trade in Somalia. Report to the IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group – Northeast African subgroup. IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group - Northeast African Subgroup.

East, R. (Compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Künzel, T., Rayaleh, H.A. and Künzel, S. 2000. Status Assessment Survey on Wildlife in Djibouti. Final Report. Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations (Z.S.C.S.P.) and Office National du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat (O.N.T.A.).

Laurent, A. and Laurent, D. 2002. Djibouti: Les mammiferes d’hier a aujourd-hui pour demain. Editions Beira, Toulouse.

Mallon, D. 2014. Eritrea Reconnaissance 2013: Trip report. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group and Zoo Landau in der Pfalz.

Mallon, D.P. and Jama, A.A. 2015. Current staus of antelopes in Somaliland. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group and Nature Somaliland.

Yalden, D. W. 2013. Madoqua saltiana Salt's Dik-dik. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume 6. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Biraffes, Deer and Bovids, Bloomsbury, London, UK.

Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. 1984. Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia. 5. Artiodactyla. Monitore zoologico italiano/Italian Journal of Zoology, N.S. Supplemento 19(4): 67-221.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Madoqua saltiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T12668A50190537. . Downloaded on 26 October 2016.
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