|Scientific Name:||Macrotis leucura (Thomas, 1887)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||No subspecies are recognised.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Johnson, C.N. & Hawkins, C.|
|Contributor(s):||Johnson, K. & Ward, S.|
Listed as Extinct because Western desert Aborigines reported that the Yallara died out in the 1960s (Burbidge et al. 1988). The last specimen was from near Koonchera Dune (Cooncherie) in north-eastern South Australia in 1931 (Johnson 2008). A skull of unknown age was found in 1967 in a nest of a Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax south-east of Alice Springs near the edge of the Simpson Desert (Johnson 2008).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Yallara inhabited the central deserts of Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia and probably the Simpson Desert in south-western Queensland|
Regionally extinct:Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is extinct. Population size is unknown, but it was probably fairly abundant, especially during good seasons. |
Aboriginal people have stated that it survived in the western deserts until c. 1960 (Burbidge et al. 1988) and the skull found in 1967 in a nest of a Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax south-east of Alice Springs near the edge of the Simpson Desert found in 1967 was estimated to be <15 years old.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Yallara occurred in sandplain or sand dune deserts, but also occupied mulga Acacia aneura and tussock grass country. They sheltered in a burrow but, unlike the Bilby, they closed the entrance while in residence. They were strictly nocturnal. Limited data on food suggests they were, unlike other bandicoots, mainly carnivorous, eating small mammals, but also seeds and fruit, including of Solanum spp. (Johnson 1989; Flannery and Schouten 2001). The presence of sand in stomach contents suggests that, like the Bilby, they dug to obtain food. Females had eight teats in two rows of four (Johnson 1989).|
|Major Threat(s):||Predation from introduced feral cats and red foxes is considered to be the major cause of extinction, probably exacerbated by changes in fire regime.|
|Conservation Actions:||Yallara are extinct.|
Abbott, I. 2002. Origin and spread of the cat, Felis catus, on mainland Australia, with a discussion on the magnitude of its early impact on native fauna. Wildlife Research 29: 51-74.
Burbidge, A.A., Johnson, K.A., Fuller, P.J. and Southgate, R.I. 1988. Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 9-39.
Burbidge, A., Johnson, K., and Dickman, C. 2008. Macrotis leucura. In 'The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species'. Version 2011.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 8 March 2012).
Dickman, C.R. 1996. Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Finlayson, H. H. 1935. On the mammals from the Lake Eyre basin Part II. The Peramelidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 59: 227-236.
Flannery, T. and Schouten, P. 2001. A gap in nature: discovering the world’s extinct animals. Text Publishing, Melbourne.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
Johnson, K. A. 1989. Thylacomyidae. In: D. W. Walton and B. J. Richardson (eds), Fauna of Australia: Volume 1B Mammalia, pp. 625 - 635. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Johnson, K. A. 2008. Lesser Bilby, Macrotis leucura. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 194-195. Reed New Holland, Sydney, New South Wales, USA.
Kinnear, J., Sumner, N.R. and Onus, M.L. 2002. The red fox in Australia—an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biological Conservation 108: 335-359.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
|Citation:||Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J. 2016. Macrotis leucura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T12651A21967376.Downloaded on 22 November 2017.|
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