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Macrotis leucura 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_on

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Peramelemorphia Thylacomyidae

Scientific Name: Macrotis leucura
Species Authority: (Thomas, 1887)
Common Name(s):
English Yallara, Lesser Bilby
French Bandicoot-lapin Mineur, Bandicoot-lapin À Queue Blanche, Petit Bandicoot-lapin, Petit Péramèle-lapin
Spanish Cangurito Narigudo Coliblanco
Taxonomic Notes: No subspecies are recognised.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2012-12-31
Assessor(s): Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J.
Reviewer(s): Johnson, C.N. & Hawkins, C.
Contributor(s): Johnson, K. & Ward, S.
Justification:
Listed as Extinct because Western desert Aborigines reported that the Yallara died out in the 1960s (Burbidge et al. 1988). The last specimen was from near Koonchera Dune (Cooncherie) in north-eastern South Australia in 1931 (Johnson 2008). A skull of unknown age was found in 1967 in a nest of a Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax south-east of Alice Springs near the edge of the Simpson Desert (Johnson 2008).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Yallara inhabited the central deserts of Western Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia and probably the Simpson Desert in south-western Queensland
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia)
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is extinct. Population size is unknown, but it was probably fairly abundant, especially during good seasons.

Aboriginal people have stated that it survived in the western deserts until c. 1960 (Burbidge et al. 1988) and the skull found in 1967 in a nest of a Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax south-east of Alice Springs near the edge of the Simpson Desert found in 1967 was estimated to be <15 years old.
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Yallara occurred in sandplain or sand dune deserts, but also occupied mulga Acacia aneura and tussock grass country. They sheltered in a burrow but, unlike the Bilby, they closed the entrance while in residence. They were strictly nocturnal. Limited data on food suggests they were, unlike other bandicoots, mainly carnivorous, eating small mammals, but also seeds and fruit, including of Solanum spp. (Johnson 1989; Flannery and Schouten 2001). The presence of sand in stomach contents suggests that, like the Bilby, they dug to obtain food. Females had eight teats in two rows of four (Johnson 1989).
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Predation from introduced feral cats and red foxes is considered to be the major cause of extinction, probably exacerbated by changes in fire regime.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Yallara are extinct.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Felis catus ]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Vulpes vulpes ]
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Past Impact 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Abbott, I. 2002. Origin and spread of the cat, Felis catus, on mainland Australia, with a discussion on the magnitude of its early impact on native fauna. Wildlife Research 29: 51-74.

Burbidge, A.A., Johnson, K.A., Fuller, P.J. and Southgate, R.I. 1988. Aboriginal knowledge of the mammals of the central deserts of Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15: 9-39.

Burbidge, A., Johnson, K., and Dickman, C. 2008. Macrotis leucura. In 'The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species'. Version 2011.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 8 March 2012).

Dickman, C.R. 1996. Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Finlayson, H. H. 1935. On the mammals from the Lake Eyre basin Part II. The Peramelidae. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 59: 227-236.

Flannery, T. and Schouten, P. 2001. A gap in nature: discovering the world’s extinct animals. Text Publishing, Melbourne.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Johnson, K. A. 1989. Thylacomyidae. In: D. W. Walton and B. J. Richardson (eds), Fauna of Australia: Volume 1B Mammalia, pp. 625 - 635. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Johnson, K. A. 2008. Lesser Bilby, Macrotis leucura. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 194-195. Reed New Holland, Sydney, New South Wales, USA.

Kinnear, J., Sumner, N.R., and Onus, M. L. 2002. The red fox in Australia—an exotic predator turned biocontrol agent. Biological Conservation 108: 335-359.

Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. 1996. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.


Citation: Burbidge, A.A. & Woinarski, J. 2016. Macrotis leucura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T12651A21967376. . Downloaded on 28 September 2016.
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