Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca hecki
Species Authority: (Matschie, 1901)
Common Name(s):
English Heck's Macaque
Macaca tonkeana subspecies hecki (Matschie 1901)
Taxonomic Notes: This species hybridizes with M. tonkeana and possibly with M. nigrescens in areas where their ranges overlap. These hybrid zones, however, appear to be disappearing owing to human encroachment (M. Richardson pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J. & Shekelle, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Vulnerable due to its continuing decline and future population declines estimated be > 30% over the next 40 years (i.e., three generations), as estimated by current rates of habitat conversion and increasing human population densities.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is restricted to northwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, from the base of the northern peninsula (Isthmus of Palu) northeast to just east of Gorontalo (Groves 2001).
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Very little is known of the populations of this species. Densities are estimated to be 20-50 individuals/km2, with group sizes of approximately 10-20 (Supriatna and Hendras 2000). Density is 6.0 individuals/km2 in forest areas (WCS unpubl. data).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Very little is known of the habitat and ecology of this species (this is one of the least studied of the Sulawesi macaques). It is presumably diurnal and frugivorous, semi-arboreal and occurs in primary and secondary tropical rainforest.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The greatest threat to the species is loss of habitat, which is increasingly fragmented. Additionally, the species is captured, poisoned, shot and persecuted by local farmers who consider the animals crop raiders.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It is known to occur in at least 6 protected areas: Dolangan Reserve, Mas Popaya Raja Reserve, Panua Reserve, Pangi Binanga Reserve, Pinjam/Tanjung Mantop Reserve, Tangale Reserve (M. Richardson pers. comm.). There is a need to expand existing protected areas. There are no specimens reported in captivity.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Bynum, E. 1995. Hybridization between Macaca tonkeana and Macaca hecki in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ph. D. Thesis, Yale.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Supriatna, J. and Hendras, E. 2000. Paduan Lapangan - Primata Indonesia. Jayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Watanabe, K. and Matsumura, S. 1991. The borderlands and possible hybrids between three species of macaques, M. nigra, M. nigriscens, and M. hecki, in the northern peninsula of Sulawesi. Primates 32(3): 365-369.

Watanabe, K., Lapasere, H. and Tantu, R. 1991. External characteristics and associated developmental changes in two species of Sulawesi macaques, Macaca tonkeana and M. hecki, with special reference to hybrids and the borderland between the species. Primates 32(1): 61-76.

Citation: Supriatna, J. & Shekelle, M. 2008. Macaca hecki. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12570A3360807. . Downloaded on 14 October 2015.
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