Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca thibetana
Species Authority: (Milne-Edwards, 1870)
Common Name(s):
English Milne-edwards’ Macaque, Tibetan Macaque, Short-tailed Tibetan Macaque, Père David's Macaque
French Macaque Du Thibet
Spanish Macaca Del Tibet
Macaca pullus (Howell, 1928)
Taxonomic Notes: Several subspecies have been recognized (Groves 2005), although Groves (2001) treated the species as monotypic. No subspecies are evaluated here, pending a revision of the taxon.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Near Threatened as although the species is widespread, there has been significant habitat loss and decline in the last 25-30 years (approximately three generations), nearly qualifying the species for Vulnerable under criterion A2cd. There has been a halt in much of the deforestation, so the major threats seem to have stabilized, and the decline of the species is likely not nearly as significant.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
1996 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
1994 Insufficiently Known (K)
1990 Insufficiently Known (K)
1988 Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Macaca thibetana occurs in east-central China (Anhui, Fujian, southern Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, northern Sichuan, Tibet, northern Yunnan, and Zhejiang). It is found in China from 25-33°N, 102°30’-119°30’E; the range extends south into Guangxi at 23°48’N, about 110°E, and as far west as the Yangtze Gorge in western and north-western Sichuan (Groves 2001). Reports from Arunachal Pradesh, India appear to be based on misidentifications (S. Molur pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population of this species is very large, and in some regions it is very common.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found mainly in broadleaf evergreen forest, both primary and secondary, as well as subtropical and deciduous forest. The species ranges from 1,000 to 2,500 m in elevation (Corbet and Hill 1992). It is predominantly terrestrial (Corbet and Hill 1992) and diurnal, and prefers to sleep in caves. It is frugivorous, but will also consume flowers berries, seeds, leaves, stems, stalks, and invertebrates.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been serious deforestation across its range, but recent measures seem to have stabilized the situation, and the future decline of the species will probably not be as serious as its past decline. Locally, non-targeted hunting is a minor threat, as is trapping.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. There is little information available regarding its status in protected areas, although L. Yongcheng (pers. comm.) reports that it is found in at least 60 nature reserves within its range in China. It is almost never seen in captivity outside of Asia, and is quite rare in zoos even there (M. Richardson pers. comm.).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
7. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) -> 7.1. Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Berman, C. and Li, J. 2002. Impact of translocation, provisioning and range restriction on a group of Macaca thibetana. International Journal of Primatology 23(2): 383-397.

Choudhury, A. 1998. Pere David’s macaque discovered in India. Rhino Foundation Newsletter 2: 7.

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: a Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Fooden, J. 1994. Southward extension of the range of Macaca thibetana. International Journal of Primatology 15(4): 623– 627.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Jiang, X., Wang, Y. and Wang, Q. 1996. Taxonomy and distribution of Tibetan Macaque (Macaca thibetana). Zoological Research 17(4): 361–369.

Kumar, R. S., Mishra, C. and Sinha, A. 2005. Discovery of the Tibetan macaque Macaca thibetana in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Current Science 88(9): 1387 – 1388.

Zhao, Q. and Deng, Z. 1992. Dramatic consequences of food handouts to Macaca thibetana at Mount Emei, China. Folia Primatologica 58(1): 24–31.

Zhao, Q., Deng, Z. Y. and Xu, J. M. 1991. Natural foods and their ecological implications for Macaca thibetana at Mount Emei, China. Folia Primatologica 57(1): 1–15.

Citation: Yongcheng, L. & Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca thibetana. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12562A3359510. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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