Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca maura
Species Authority: (H.R. Schinz, 1825)
Common Name(s):
English Moor Macaque, Celebes Macaque
French Macaque Maure
Spanish Macaca Mora
Macaca cuvieri (Fischer, 1829)
Macaca fusco-ater (Schinz, 1844)
Macaca hypomelas (Matschie, 1901)
Macaca inornatus (Gray, 1866)
Macaca majuscula Hooijer, 1950
Taxonomic Notes: This taxon was formerly known as Macaca maurus. This species hybridizes with M. tonkeana in areas where their ranges overlap.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Supriatna, J., Shekelle, M. & Burton, J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Endangered due to a decline of ≥ 50% of the population over the last three generations (30-36 years). The populations of this species are now extremely fragmented, and are increasingly restricted to karst areas which are under increasing threat due to cement mining.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs only on the south-western peninsula (Selatan) of Sulawesi Island (Okamoto et al. 2000), south of the Tempe depression, in Indonesia.
Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: From 1983 to 1994 population estimates for moor macaque apparently went from 56,000 individuals to under 10,000 (Evans et al. 2001), but they may or may not still be in decline. However, the survey methods used in these two population estimates were different, and the level of decline over three generations is more likely to be between 50 and 80%, than greater than 80% (J. Burton pers. comm.). The well-studied population that lives in Karaenta Nature Reserve reached a density of 70 individuals/km2 as of 1998 (Okamoto et al. 2000). In 1992, Supriatna et al. (1992) conducted an extensive survey and found only 3,000-5,000 individuals (2,500 mature) of the species. They estimated densities to be 25-50 individuals/km2 (18.7SD).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In the north of its range this species is found in rainforest as well as deciduous forests and karst islands, while in the southern parts it tends to occur in mosaics of forest with some grasslands, probably due primarily to habitat availability. They occur below 2,000 m. It is diurnal and frugivorous, but will also consume leaves and arthropods. Females reach sexual maturity in 6-7 years, and inter-birth intervals averaged 32 months (Okamoto et al. 2000).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to moor macaques and other Sulawesi macaques seems to be habitat disturbance and fragmentation (Evans et al. 2001). The species is poisoned and trapped by local farmers where they are considered crop raiders. Increasing human settlement has marginalized the species to karst areas that cannot be developed. However, cement mining is destroying these areas and may be a serious threat to all species persisting in karst in the near future. These animals are frequently kept as pets by local people.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is known to occur in 4 protected areas (Bantimurung National Park, Bulu Saraung National Park, Hasanuddin National Park, Karaenta Nature Reserve); however, the total protected area in the extent of occurrence is only 87 km2. There is an urgent need to address the cement mining of karst areas as this and other species have been protected by the prior inaccessibility of these formations.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Evans, B. J., Supriatna, J. and Melnick, D. J. 2001. Hybridization and population genetics of two macaque species in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Evolution 55(8): 1686-1702.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Okamoto, K., Matsumura, S. and Watanabe, K. 2000. Life history and demography of wild Moor macaques (Macaca maurus): Summary of ten years of observations. American Journal of Primatology 52: 1-11.

Supriatna, J. 2000. Primates of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Supriatna, J., Froehlich, J. W., Erwin, J. M. and Southwick, C. H. 1992. Population, habitat and conservation status of Macaca maurus, Macaca tonkeana and their putative hybrids. Tropical Biodiversity 1: 31-48.

Citation: Supriatna, J., Shekelle, M. & Burton, J. 2008. Macaca maura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12553A3356200. . Downloaded on 14 October 2015.
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