|Scientific Name:||Macaca maura|
|Species Authority:||(H.R. Schinz, 1825)|
Macaca cuvieri (Fischer, 1829)
Macaca fusco-ater (Schinz, 1844)
Macaca hypomelas (Matschie, 1901)
Macaca inornatus (Gray, 1866)
Macaca majuscula Hooijer, 1950
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon was formerly known as Macaca maurus. This species hybridizes with M. tonkeana in areas where their ranges overlap.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Supriatna, J., Shekelle, M. & Burton, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Endangered due to a decline of ≥ 50% of the population over the last three generations (30-36 years). The populations of this species are now extremely fragmented, and are increasingly restricted to karst areas which are under increasing threat due to cement mining.
|Range Description:||This species occurs only on the south-western peninsula (Selatan) of Sulawesi Island (Okamoto et al. 2000), south of the Tempe depression, in Indonesia.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||From 1983 to 1994 population estimates for moor macaque apparently went from 56,000 individuals to under 10,000 (Evans et al. 2001), but they may or may not still be in decline. However, the survey methods used in these two population estimates were different, and the level of decline over three generations is more likely to be between 50 and 80%, than greater than 80% (J. Burton pers. comm.). The well-studied population that lives in Karaenta Nature Reserve reached a density of 70 individuals/km2 as of 1998 (Okamoto et al. 2000). In 1992, Supriatna et al. (1992) conducted an extensive survey and found only 3,000-5,000 individuals (2,500 mature) of the species. They estimated densities to be 25-50 individuals/km2 (18.7SD).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In the north of its range this species is found in rainforest as well as deciduous forests and karst islands, while in the southern parts it tends to occur in mosaics of forest with some grasslands, probably due primarily to habitat availability. They occur below 2,000 m. It is diurnal and frugivorous, but will also consume leaves and arthropods. Females reach sexual maturity in 6-7 years, and inter-birth intervals averaged 32 months (Okamoto et al. 2000).|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to moor macaques and other Sulawesi macaques seems to be habitat disturbance and fragmentation (Evans et al. 2001). The species is poisoned and trapped by local farmers where they are considered crop raiders. Increasing human settlement has marginalized the species to karst areas that cannot be developed. However, cement mining is destroying these areas and may be a serious threat to all species persisting in karst in the near future. These animals are frequently kept as pets by local people.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is known to occur in 4 protected areas (Bantimurung National Park, Bulu Saraung National Park, Hasanuddin National Park, Karaenta Nature Reserve); however, the total protected area in the extent of occurrence is only 87 km2. There is an urgent need to address the cement mining of karst areas as this and other species have been protected by the prior inaccessibility of these formations.|
Evans, B. J., Supriatna, J. and Melnick, D. J. 2001. Hybridization and population genetics of two macaque species in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Evolution 55(8): 1686-1702.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Okamoto, K., Matsumura, S. and Watanabe, K. 2000. Life history and demography of wild Moor macaques (Macaca maurus): Summary of ten years of observations. American Journal of Primatology 52: 1-11.
Supriatna, J. 2000. Primates of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia.
Supriatna, J., Froehlich, J. W., Erwin, J. M. and Southwick, C. H. 1992. Population, habitat and conservation status of Macaca maurus, Macaca tonkeana and their putative hybrids. Tropical Biodiversity 1: 31-48.
|Citation:||Supriatna, J., Shekelle, M. & Burton, J. 2008. Macaca maura. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 October 2014.|
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