Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Macaca fuscata
Species Authority: (Blyth, 1875)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Japanese Macaque
French Macaque À Face Rouge, Macaque Japonais
Spanish Macaca Japonesa
Taxonomic Notes: The population on Yakushima is usually considered a distinct subspecies (M. f. yakui).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Watanabe, K. & Tokita, K.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is widespread and found in many protected areas. The distribution is expanding and the population is increasing in many areas. It has a large global population and is not experiencing any serious declines. Therefore, this species is Least Concern, although there are some local populations under threat.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Data Deficient (DD)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is present in Japan on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and the islands of Awaji, Shodo, Yaku, Kinkazan (Miyagi Prefecture), Kojima (Miyazaki Prefecture) and others. It was previously found on Tane Island, where it is now extinct (Abe 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is endemic to Japan. It is common, widespread and increasing in recent years, although a few populations in Tohoku District are threatened (Ministry of the Environment, 2007). Population density is usually larger in broad-leaved evergreen forests than in broad-leaved deciduous forests (Abe 2005). On Yaku Island, a survey conducted in 1991 and 1992 (Yoshihiro et al. 1998) estimated 131 troops containing 2,000-3,850 individuals in a coastal area of 12.7 km².
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in broad-leaved deciduous and evergreen forest, from subtropical lowlands to sub-alpine regions of up to 1,500 m asl (Abe et al. 2005). It feeds on fruit, leaves, berries, seeds, small animals, insects, and cultivated crops, and bark (Abe et al. 2005).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Five-thousand animals are culled each year to prevent damage to crops.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats at the species level. There are two localities where hybridization with the introduced Macaca spp. is known to occur: Taiwanese Macaque (Macaca cyclopsis) in Wakayama Prefecture; and Rhesus Macaque (M. mulatta) in Chiba Prefecture (Abe et al. 2005). However, in the former case, most individuals have been removed (Watanabe pers. comm.). Each year, over 10,000 individuals are killed to prevent agricultural damage (Abe et al. 2005), and this situation may require more careful population management.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES – Appendix II, and had been officially protected from hunting in Japan since 1947. It is known from most of the National and Quosi-National Parks in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu: Ashizuri-Uwakai NP, Aso NP, Bandai-Asahi NP, Chubu-Sangaku NP, Daisetsuzan NP, Fuji-Hakone-Izu NP, Hakusan NP, Jo-shin-Etsu Kogen NP, Karishima-Yaku NP, Minami Alps NP, Nichinan Kaigan Quasi NP, Nikko NP, San-In Kaigan NP, Seto Inland Sea NP, Seto Naikai NP, Takasakiyama NP, Towada-Hachimantai NP (M. Richardson pers. comm.). The species is quite common in captivity (ISIS, 2007).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.3. Persecution/control
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Macaca mulatta)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.1. Hybridisation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Macaca cyclopis)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.1. Hybridisation

♦  Other (free text)
 National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Abe, H., Ishii, N., Ito, T., Kaneko, Y., Maeda, K., Miura, S. and Yoneda, M. 2005. A Guide to the Mammals of Japan. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan.

Fooden, J. and Aimi, M. 2005. Systematic Review of Japanese Macaques, Macaca fuscata (Gray, 1870). Fieldiana: Zoology 104.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Iwamoto, T. 1974. A bioeconomic study on a provisioned troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at Koshima islet, Miyazaki. Primates 15(2-3): 241-262.

Kuroda, N. 1940. A monograph of the Japanese mammals, excluding the Sirenia and Cetacea. Sanseido Co, Tokyo, Japan.

Ministry of the Environment. 2007. The revised Japanese Red List.

Ministry of the Environment. In press. Threatened Wildlife of Japan, Red Data Book, Supplement. Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo.

Suzuki, A. 1965. An ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys in snowy areas, focused on their food habits. Primates 6(1): 31-72.

Takasaski, H. 1981. Troop size, habital quality, and home range area in Japanese macaques. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 9(4): 277-281.

Yoshihiro, S., Furuichi, T., Manda, M., Ohkubo, N., Kinoshita, M., Agematsu, N., Azuma, S., Matsubara, H., Sugiura, H., Hill, D., Kido, E., Kubo, R., Matsushima, K., Nakajima, K., Maruhashi, T., Oi, T., Sprague, D. Tanaka, T., Tsukahara, T. and Takahata, Y. 1998. The distribution of wild Yakushima macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) troops around the coast of Yakushima Island, Japan. Primate Research 14: 179-187.

Citation: Watanabe, K. & Tokita, K. 2008. Macaca fuscata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T12552A3355997. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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