|Scientific Name:||Macaca fascicularis|
|Species Authority:||(Raffles, 1821)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||At least ten subspecies are presently recognized, most of which are isolated, insular populations with few apparent differences between any of them other than pelage color, tail length, and the form of the cheek whiskers (Groves 2001). There is considerable hybridization between this species and M. mulatta where their ranges meet. Hybrids between M. fascicularis and M. nemestrina have also been reported (Groves 2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ong, P. & Richardson, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category. Although it is under heavy hunting pressure for meat, sport and trophies, this is not considered a major threat to the species overall.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, India (Nicobar Islands), Indonesia (including Bali, Bangka, the Batu Islands, Bawean, Belitung, Java, Kalimantan Borneo, the Kangean Islands, Karimata, Karimunjawa, Lingga, Lombok, the Natuna Islands, Nias, Nusatenggara, the Riau Archipelago, Simeulue, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, and Timor), Lao PDR, Malaysia (including the Peninsula as well as Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), Myanmar (including the Mergui Archipelago), the Philippines (Balabec, Basilan, Cagayan Sulu, Culion, Jolo, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, and Samar), Singapore, Thailand (including offshore islands), Timor-Leste and Viet Nam. On mainland Southeast Asia, there is a hybrid zone with Macaca mulata in central areas that makes it difficult to determine the northern limits of its range. The species has been introduced to Kabeana Island, Indonesia, the Pacific island of Palau, Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, and to New Guinea (Groves 2001) (these introduced populations are not included in the distribution map).
M. f. fascicularis
Occurs in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia (including Bali, Bangka, the Batu Islands, Bawean, Java, Kalimantan Borneo, Karimata, Lingga, the Natuna Islands, Nias, Nusatenggara, the Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Sumba, and Timor), Malaysia (including the peninsula as well as Sabah and Sarawak Borneo), the Philippines (western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago), Singapore, southern Thailand (including offshore islands), and southern Viet Nam (Groves 2001).
M. f. aureus
Occurs in southernmost Bangladesh, Lao PDR, Myanmar (including the Mergui Archipelago) and west-central Thailand (Groves 2001).
M. f. umbrosus
Occurs on Nicobar Islands of India (Little Nicobar, Great Nicobar and Katchall), where it is found up to 600 m (Umapathy et al. 2003; Molur et al. 2003; Groves 2001).
M. f. fuscus
Occurs on Pulau Simeulue, off the northwestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia (Groves 2001).
M. f. condorensis
Occurs on Con Son Island, off the coast of southern Viet Nam (Groves 2001).
M. f. tua
Occurs on Pulau Maratua, east of Borneo, Indonesia (Groves 2001).
M. f. philippensis
Occurs in the Philippines. Found on the islands of Balabac, Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Busuanga, Camiguin, Catanduanes, Culion, Leyte, Luzon, northeastern Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Panay, Palawan, Samar and Sibuyan (Groves 2001; Heaney et al. 1998).
M. f. lasiae
Occurs on Pulau Lasia, off the northewestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia (Groves 2001).
M. f. karimondjawae
Occurs on Pulau Karimunjawa and (probably) nearby Pulau Kemujan, Java Sea, Indonesia (Groves 2001).
M. f. atriceps
Occurs on Khram Yai Island, off the southeastern coast of Thailand (Groves 2001).
Native:Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
Introduced:Mauritius; Palau; Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This is a widespread and often abundant species, and is sometimes commensal with humans. In the Philippines, it ranges from being locally common to uncommon, though this is largely dependent upon hunting pressure. In Bangladesh, the population has been estimated at less than 100 total individuals, and a population on the Teknaf Peninsula has been completely decimated due to development activities (ship-building) (Molur et al. 2003).
There is a paucity of information available on the population status of several island forms. Molur et al. (2003) estimated about 4,800 individuals of M. f. umbrosus, but nothing is known about the status following the December 2004 tsunami. The islands of Katchall and Little Nicobar were submerged during the tsunami, and it is believed to have affected the habitat of this taxon; on the other hand, Shankaran et al. (2005) state that these macaques were not affected seriously on Greater Nicobar Island. The disaster could have impacted their populations on these two islands due to the fruiting Pandanus being affected by the tsunami (M. Singh pers. comm.). The population on Con Son (M. f. conderensis) likely numbers less than 1,000 individuals, and a number of other island forms probably have a similar status.
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is extremely tolerant of a range of habitats, including mangrove and swamp forests, and can be found in agricultural areas near forest (secondary growth, secondary forest, and primary forest) (Thomas 1898; Fooden 1991, 1995; Rabor 1986; Goodman and Ingle 1993; Heaney et al. 1991; Rickart et al. 1993; Danielsen et al. 1994). On the Nicobars, M. f. umbrosus is found in mangroves and coastal forests dominated by Pandanus species (Molur et al. 2003). M. f. aureus is found in evergreen forests and coastal mangroves (Molur et al. 2003). The species has been reported as occurring to elevations of up to 1,000 m on Java, Borneo, and Sumatra (Indonesia), and up to 1,800 m in the Philippines (Heaney et al. 1998). On the mainland, it generally occurs at lower elevations: up to 700 m in Thailand, while in Cambodia and Viet Nam it generally occurs below 300 m. This species is semi-terrestrial, diurnal, and omnivorous (Molur et al. 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Across much of the range, the major threat to the species is hunting. In mainland Southeast Asia, such as in Cambodia and Viet Nam, females are taken into breeding facilities and males are exported internationally primarily for use in laboratory research. A potential related issue is the release of confiscated long-tailed macaques from the border area of Viet Nam and China (which is where most of the current international trade is being recorded) into the native range of other macaque species. In the Philippines, the species is subject to a high level of hunting, where it is taken for local consumption and hunted for sport. It is also persecuted as a pest. Habitat loss is also a localised threat, but the species can persist in a variety of habitats and very adaptable.|
The species is included in Appendix II of CITES. It is listed on Schedule I, Part I, Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 amended up to 2002, and Schedule III, Bangladesh Wildlife (Protection) Act A 1974 (Molur et al. 2003). In Myanmar it is a “normally” protected species. It is a protected on Appendix 2B on Decree 32 (2006) in Viet Nam. It occurs in many protected areas throughout its range and is relatively common in captivity (M. Richardson pers. comm.).
There is a need for further survey work to assess the current population status of the various island forms. In particular, following the Indian Ocean Island tsunami of December 2004, a targeted survey is required to establish their current status on the Nicobars.
Berenstein, L. 1986. Responses of long-tailed macaques to drought and fire in eastern Borneo: a preliminary report. Biotropica 18(3): 257-262.
Danielsen, F., Balete, D. S., Christensen, T. D., Heegaard, M., Jakobsen, O. F., Jensen, A., Lund, T. and Poulsen, M. K. 1994. Conservation of biological diversity in the Sierra Madre Mountains of Isabela and Southern Cagayan Province, the Philippines. Birdlife International, Department of the Environment and Natural Resources, Manila.
Fooden, J. 1964. Rhesus and crab-eating macaques: intergradation in Thailand. Science 143(3604): 363-365.
Fooden, J. 1991. Systematic review of Philippine macaques (Primates, Cercopithecidae: Macaca fascicularis subspp.). Fieldiana: Zoology 64: 1-44.
Fooden, J. 1995. Systematic review of Southeast Asia long-tail macaques, Macaca fascicularis Raffles (1821). Fieldiana Zoology 64: 1-44.
Goodman, S. M. and Ingle, N. R. 1993. Sibuyan Island in the Phillipines-threatened and in need of conservation. Oryx 23: 174-180.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Heaney, L.R., Balete, D.S., Dollar, M.L., Alcala, A.C., Dans, A.T.L., Gonzales, P.C., Ingle, N. R., Lepiten, M. V., Oliver, W. L. R., Ong, P. S., Rickart, E.A., Tabaranza Jr., B.R. and Utzurrum, R.C.B. 1998. A synopsis of the Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 88: 1-61.
Heaney, L. R., Gonzales, P. C., Utzurrum, R. C. B. and Rickart, E. A. 1991. The mammals of Cataduanes Island: Implications for the biogeography of small land-bridge islands in the Philippines. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 104(2): 399-415.
Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Rabor, D.S. 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Centre. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines.
Rickart, E. A., Heaney, L. R., Heidman, P. D. and Utzurrum, R. C. B. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi islands, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology 72: 1-62.
Shankaran, R., Andrews, H. and Vaughn, A. 2005. Ground Beneath the Waves: Post Tsunami Assessments of Wildlife and their Habitats in India. Volume 2: Islands. Wildlife Trust of India, New Delhi, India.
Sugardjito, J., Van Schaik, C. P., van Noordwijk, M. A. and Mitrasetia, T. 1989. Population Status of the Simeulue monkey (Macaca fascicularis fusca). American Journal of Primatology 17(3): 197-207.
Thomas, O. 1898. On the mammals obtained by Mr John Whitehead during his recent expedition to the Philippines. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 14: 377–412.
Umapathy, G., Singh, M. and Mohnot, S. M. 2003. Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 281-293.
Yanuar, A., Bekti, D. and Saleh, C. 1993. The status of the Karimata primates Presbytis rubicunda carimatae and Macaca fascicularis carimatensis in Karimata Island, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity 1(3): 157-162.
|Citation:||Ong, P. & Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca fascicularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.|
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