|Scientific Name:||Macaca cyclopis|
|Species Authority:||(Swinhoe, 1863)|
Macaca affinis (Blyth, 1863)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hai Yin, W. & Richardson, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species’ population is stable or even increasing, its extent of occurrence is greater than 20,000 km2, and conservation measures appear to be working.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Taiwan. The main distribution rests on the central mountain range, with some local subpopulations scattered in peripheral lowland forest remnants. The extent of occurrence, estimated by the total forested area in Taiwan, was 19,501 km2. Although once thought to have once been associated with coastal areas, it is now largely confined to inland hills owing to human activity.
Introduced feral subpopulations have become established at four localities in Japan: Oshima (south of Tokyo), Nojima (south of Nagoya), Wakayama prefecture (south of Osaka, where it has hybridized with Macaca fuscata), and the Shimokita Peninsula (northern Honshu) (Fooden and Wu 2001).
Native:Taiwan, Province of China
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In a survey done along 37 routes (1,211.8 km in total), the estimated density was higher in broadleaved forest, and the estimated island-wide population was approximately 10,000 ± 5,000 troops (Lee et al. 2002). The local density is highly variable, depending on forest disturbance and hunting. In recent years, the species has been reported as increasing, but the reason for this is unknown and could be an artefact due to increased survey work in natural areas (Hai Yin Wu pers. comm. 2006). There has not been extensive monitoring, but the global population does not appear to be significantly declining (Hai Yin Wu pers. comm. 2006).
At one time it was found in large groups of up to 100, in recent years average group size has become much smaller (typically 2-10) owing to human pressures (M. Richardson pers. comm.).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The primary habitat of the species is broadleaved evergreen forest. It also inhabits mixed broadleaf-coniferous forest, coniferous forest and bamboo forest (Fooden and Wu 2001). The species is adaptable and, though always associated with forested areas, can be found in secondary forest and remnant forest patches, and can enter agricultural areas for food (Hai Yin Wu pers. comm. 2006). The species ranges in elevation from sea level to 3,600 m although in a survey the species was found most often in broadleaved forest at 1,000-1,500 m elevation (Lee et al. 2002).
It is terrestrial and arboreal, diurnal, and feeds on fruits, leaves, berries, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates.
Reproduction is strongly seasonal in this species. Birth occurs between February and August, with birth frequency peaking during April and June (Fooden and Wu 2001; Hsu et al. 2006). Females first give birth at 4 or 5 years of age. Annual birth rate is around 0.70 (Fooden and Wu 2001), in lowland broadleaved forest, it is reported to be 0.69 in a wild troop (Wu and Lin 1992) and 0.78 in a provisioned subpopulation (Hsu et al. 2006). Annual birth rate may be lower in troops inhabiting higher elevation (Fooden and Wu 2001).
|Use and Trade:||Appears primarily to be taken as bycatch or in relation to human-monkey conflict in agricultural areas.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats. However, the local populations species may be impacted by habitat loss for agriculture and development, especially in lower elevations. Also, there is some illegal hunting and non-target trapping, but not at a level to constitute an overall threat to the species. Monkey-human conflict in agricultural fields and around villages can be intense against the species and its protected status.|
This species is listed as CITES Appendix II. In Taiwan it is listed as a category II (rare and valuable) protected species and is protected by Wildlife Conservation Law. The species occurs in 5 national parks and 12 nature reserves/protective areas, and 11 major wildlife habitats/refuges provide less disturbed habitats for the species.
Recent conservation measures appear to be working, with numbers believed to be on the rise; however, this increase is also contributing to the level of conflict with humans (for example crop raiding, and even a few instances of monkey attacks on people). Elsewhere, the species is becoming dependent upon food handouts (M. Richardson pers. comm.).
Fooden, J. and Wu, H. Y. 2001. Systematic review of the Taiwanese macaque, Macaca cyclopis Swinhoe,1863. Fieldiana: Zoology 98: 70 pp.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hsu, M. J., Lin, J. F. and Agoramoorthy, G. 2006. Effects of group size on birth rate, infant mortality and social interactions in Formosan macaques at Mt Longevity, Taiwan. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 18: 3-17.
Lee, L. L., Wu, H. Y., Chang, S. W., Hsu, M. J. and Agoramoorthy, G. 2002. Survey on current status of Formosan macaques. Report of the Symposium on Conservation and Management of Formosan Macaques, pp. 34-48. Society for Wildlife and Nature, Taiwan.
Masui, K., Narita, Y. and Tanaka, S. 1986. Information on the distribution of Formosan monkeys Macaca cyclopis. Primates 27(3): 383-392.
Wu, H. and Lin, Y. 1992. Life history variables of wild troops of Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) in Kenting, Taiwan. Primates 33(1): 85-97.
|Citation:||Hai Yin, W. & Richardson, M. 2008. Macaca cyclopis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.|