|Scientific Name:||Lontra felina (Molina, 1782)|
Lutra felina Molina, 1782
|Taxonomic Notes:||The use of Lutra for three the New World otter species (L. felina, L. canadiensis, L. longicaudis) has been widespread in the past. Van Zyll de Jong (1972, 1987) separated this group into the genus Lontra based on morphological criteria, which was confirmed by Wozencraft (1993). Koepfli and Wayne (1998) and Koepfli et al. (2008) re-confirmed this classification based molecular data. Thus, nowadays the generic name Lontra should be accepted as valid for all New World otters (except Pteronura).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A3cde ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Valqui, J. & Rheingantz, M.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hussain, S.A. & Duplaix, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Alvarez, R. & Medina-Vogel, G.|
The Marine Otter is confirmed as Endangered on the basis of inferred future population decline due to habitat loss and exploitation. The Marine Otter has a restricted distribution along the Pacific coast from northern Peru along the Chilean coast to Cape Horn and Isla de Los Estados in Argentina. It is patchily distributed from Peru to Tierra del Fuego. Its distribution north of 39°S latitude is becoming highly fragmented because of exploitation, pollution and increased human occupation along the seashores. Poaching is still present in many regions, especially south of 39ºS latitude, where there is little or no enforcement of protective legislation. The greatest threats to its continuous existence are accelerating habitat destruction, degradation, and competition for prey, accidental kill in crab pots and poaching throughout the range. The original range of Marine Otter has decreased considerably because of excessive hunting (Redford and Eisenberg 1992), and the species has been nearly exterminated from the regions of Cape Horn and southern Tierra del Fuego (Brownell 1978) as well as from the northern extremities of its former range (Chehebar 1990).
Additionally, Marine Otters are persecuted and killed directly for alleged damage to local fish, bivalves, and shrimp populations (Miller et al. 1983, Redford and Eisenberg 1992, Apaza et al. 2004).) Illegal fishing techniques (e.g. dynamite fishing, accidental death by entanglement (bycatch) in fishing nets) are a frequent problem in several localities of the Peruvian coast, such as Huarmey (Valqui 2012) and Paracas (Apaza et al. 2004, Valqui 2012). Pollution of the Marine Otter's habitat comes from several centres of industrial fishing activity like Chimbote (probably the most important fishing port at the Peruvian coast) and mining cities Ite, Ilo and Marcona in Peru, where tailings have been spilled directly into the ocean for over 40 years, altering several kilometres of the littoral (Apaza et al. 2004).
A common denominator for all the range countries is the weak law enforcement in Marine otter conservation as hunting or killings of otters at fish farms do not implicate consequences to the offenders. Global natural factors like the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) also may considerably affect the marine otter population (Vianna et al. 2010), due to the more or less drastic climatic and oceanographic changes that cause the mortality of several marine communities from fish to mammals (Apaza and Figari 1999, Wang and Fiedler 2006).
These threats are inferred to result in future population reductions of at least 50% over the next three generations (30 years Pacifici et al. 2013) unless conservation measures are strengthened. Therefore it is proposed to keep the Marine Otter listed under the category Endangered based on criterion A3cde.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Marine Otter is distributed along the southern Pacific Coast of South America from Chimbote (9°S) in northern Peru (Valqui 2012), to Isla Grevy (56°S) at the southern tip of Chile (Sielfeld 1997) and eastwards to the Isla de los Estados (54°S), in Argentina (Parera 1996). In 1964, Schweigger reported Lontra felina up to the Isla Lobos de Tierra (6° 26'S) in northern Peru. Studies of the last decades registered the northern range limit at Chimbote (9°S) (Brack 1978, Brownell 1978, Larivière 1998, Apaza et al. 2004, Sánchez and Ayala 2006, Valqui et al. 2010). Recent sightings in Huanchaco (8°S) suggest at least occasional events of recolonization north to the actual northern limit of distribution range, yet reasons for appearance or disappearance in these areas remain unclear (Alfaro-Shigueto et al. 2011). In the south the species´ presence is unclear in the XVth, Ist, XIth and XIIth regions and in the Tierra del Fuego region in Argentina (Cassini 2008).
Although Redford and Eisenberg (1992) stated that “The original range of Lontra felina has decreased considerably because of excessive hunting in the past decades“, the authors do not mention any specific regions or study cases. Brownell (1978) stated that ”the species has been nearly exterminated from the regions of Cape Horn and southern Tierra del Fuego” but several works (Sielfeld 1989, 1990, 1992; Sielfeld and Castilla 1999) reported the species' presence between 49°S (Puerto Orella) and 55°S (Isla Grevy).
The Marine Otter´s habitat is naturally fragmented in a very heterogeneous alternation of suitable habitat (rocky shore patches with caves or, sometimes, docks, shipwrecks or abandoned fishing boats) and unsuitable habitat (sandy beaches or rocky shoreline without caves). Thus, Marine Otters may be absent in several hundreds of kilometres of coast throughout the species´ total distribution range (Redford and Eisenberg 1992, Vianna et al. 2010, Valqui 2012).
Native:Argentina; Chile; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southwest; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The density estimates proposed by various authors are very variable (from 0.04 to 10 individuals per kilometre, see Castilla and Bahamondes 1979, Castilla 1982, Cabello 1983, Rozzi and Torres-Mura 1990, Ebensperger and Castilla 1991, Sanchez 1992, Sielfeld 1992, Medina-Vogel 1995, Apaza et al. 2004, Mangel and Alfaro-Shigueto 2004, Medina-Vogel et al. 2006), therefore the reported numbers are to be taken with care. Survey numbers and abundance estimations are highly dependent on the methodology applied (Valqui 2012) and detecting individuals on the rocky shores is very difficult. The fact that the species is solitary or only present in very small groups (not larger than ten individuals) makes it difficult to determine if the species is abundant in one specific area. Nevertheless a global population of about 800 to 2,000 individuals is proposed for the Peruvian coast (ca 150 km) by Valqui (2012),
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Lontra felina is the only species of the genus Lontra that is found exclusively in marine habitats. It uses coastlines with range extending approximately 30 m inland and 100-150 m of sea offshore (Castilla and Bahamondes 1979). The species inhabits marine areas exposed to heavy seas and strong wind (Cabello 1978, Ostfeld et al. 1989) and prefers rocky shores with caves that are above water at high tide, as well as areas with large algae communities offering a wide abundance and diversity of prey species (Castilla and Bahamondes 1979). Sandy beaches offer marginal habitat (Sielfeld 1989) and typically are used only for travel between dens and water (Ebensperger and Castilla 1992). Marine Otters are, for the most part, restricted to marine waters, but may occasionally travel up freshwater rivers in search of prey (Brownell 1978, Cabello 1978, Redford and Eisenberg 1992). Because not all coastlines are suitable, marine otters are found in disjunct populations throughout their distribution range (Redford and Eisenberg 1992).|
The fact that Marine Otters are solitary or only gathering in small groups suggests high ecological requirements regarding space. The species' preference for coastal waters offering a wide abundance and diversity of prey species (Castilla and Bahamondes 1979) is in conflict with the increasing artisan and industrial fishing effort. Marine Otters are top predators with a high metabolic rate, thus pollution of their environments may affect them more than other species, as their position in the food chain leads to high bioaccumulation of heavy metals, pesticides and other toxic elements.
The Marine Otter diet is composed mostly of invertebrates, including crustaceans (decapods, shrimps, and crabs) and molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), and vertebrate prey, including fish from the families Blennidae, Cheilodactylidae, Gobiesocidae, and Pomacentridae, and occasionally birds and small mammals (Cabello 1978, Castilla and Bahamondes 1979, Ostfeld et al. 1989, Sielfeld 1990). Along the Valdivian coast in the south of Chile the diet of marine otter consisted of 25 species; 52% (13/25) of the species identified were crustaceans, 40% (10/25) were fish, and 8% (2/25) were molluscs. Crustaceans were found in 78% of 475 spraints, 100% of 929 prey remains, and 90.8% of prey determined by direct observation, fish in 20% of spraints and 9.0% of prey determined by direct observation, and molluscs in 2% of spraints and 0.2% of prey determined by direct observation. Observed seasonal variation in prey availability was reflected in the otter diet. Fourteen prey species were trapped; 43% (6/14) were crustaceans and 57% (8/14) fish, crustaceans were 93% of 566 trapped individuals, fish 7%. L. felina showed opportunistic feeding behaviour, selecting prey seasonally according to their availability rather than to their energy input (Medina-Vogel et al. 2004).
Some studies have found that fruits (Greigia sphacelata, Fascicularia bicolor) may also be consumed on occasion (Brownell 1978, Cabello 1978, Medina 1995). Marine Otters may compete with gulls (Larus) and the South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) for similar species of prey fish (Cabello 1978). The most important natural predator of the Marine Otter is the Killer Whale (Orcinus orca; Cabello 1978), but adults also may be killed by sharks (Parera 1996) and birds of prey may capture juveniles when on land (Cabello 1983).
The Marine Otter is most likely a monogamous species. Mating typically occurs during December or January (Cabello 1978) with gestation of 60-65 days (Housse 1953, Sielfield 1989). Parturition usually occurs from January to March. It takes place in a den or on shore between rocky outcroppings and vegetation. The litter size varies from two to four young, with two being observed most frequently. Young Marine Otters remain with their parents for approximately ten months. Adults transport their young by carrying them in their mouths or resting the young on their bellies as they swim on their backs. Both adults in the monogamous pair bring prey back to the den to feed their young (Parera 1996). When not breeding, Marine Otters are mostly solitary. The group size is seldom more than two to three individuals. Its activity pattern is generally diurnal, with peaks of activity noted in early morning, mid-afternoon, and evenings. Marine Otters are much more agile in the water than on land.
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||10|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||For Use and Trade information see under Threats.|
Hunting was the major threat on the Marine Otter in the 20th Century (Sielfeld and Castilla 1999). 38 000 otter pelts were exported from Chile between 1910 and 1954 (Iriarte and Jaksic 1986). Although two otter species (L. provocax and L. felina) were subsumed as “otters” and no hunting estimate of each species can be inferred from this data, these numbers show the magnitude of the pelt industry in the 20th Century. Today, the lack of demand in the pelt market and fur trade prohibitions, have diminished the hunting threat considerably. Nonetheless, illegal hunting for fur and trophies still occurs in some areas as Samanco, (Sánchez and Ayala 2006), La Libertad (15°29'S) and Morro Sama (18°00'S) (Apaza et al. 2004), Peru and south of 39°S latitude in Chile.
In the last decades, the major threats derive from an intensive urbanization of western South America, where the immense anthropogenic pressure on the coastal ecosystem accelerates habitat degradation and increases its fragmentation (Brownell 1978, Eisenberg and Redford 1989, Sielfield and Castilla 1999, Medina-Vogel et al. 2008, Vianna et al. 2010). It is not yet clear at what point these fragmentation forces will cause isolation to result in local extinction events due to lack of gene flow (Valqui 2012). In any case, these global changes will trigger many specific more local threats in different regions. In and around human settlements, big dens with terrestrial entrances may be occupied by dogs, cats and rats, displacing the Marine Otter from its reproduction, feeding and resting areas (Apaza et al. 2003, Valqui 2012). Dog attacks are increasingly reported in several locations of the distribution (Medina-Vogel et al. 2008, Mangel et al. 2010, Vianna et al. 2010).
Industrial and artisan fishing ports have been established along the Pacific coast, affecting structure and productivity of marine life communities. Although Lontra felina shows certain capacity to coexist with humans, for example in fishing ports (Valqui 2004, Ruiz 2009, Medina-Vogel et al. 2007), fishing has intensified global natural declines in the abundance of many forage fishes, leading to reduced reproductive success and reduced abundance of birds and marine mammals (Majluf et al. 2002). The human-otter coexistence implies competition for resources that humans exploit for food, commerce and housing (Moreno et al. 1984; Ostfeld et al. 1989; Moreno 2001; Medina-Vogel et al. 2004, 2007, 2008), as it is the case of mariculture (crabs and molluscs (Apaza et al. 2004). Additionally, marine otters may be persecuted and killed directly for alleged damage to local fish, bivalves, and shrimp populations (Miller et al. 1983, Redford and Eisenberg 1992, Apaza et al. 2004).). Illegal fishing techniques (e.g. dynamite fishing) are a frequent problem in several localities of the Peruvian coast, such as Huarmey (Valqui 2012) and Paracas (Apaza et al. 2004, Valqui 2012). Industrial ships have frequently been observed fishing closer to the coast than allowed by law (Apaza et al. 2004), perturbing the coastal habitat on a broader scale. Another threat for Marine Otters is accidental death by entanglement (bycatch) in fishing nets (Brownell 1978, Mangel and Alfaro-Shigueto 2004, Pizarro 2008) and in crab pots (Medina-Vogel et al. 2004), although the dimension of these mortality cases is unknown.
Pollution of the Marine Otter´s habitat comes from several centres of industrial fishing activity like Chimbote (probably the most important fishing port at the Peruvian coast) and mining cities Ite, Ilo and Marcona in Peru, where tailings have been spilled directly into the ocean for over 40 years, altering several kilometres of the littoral (Apaza et al. 2004).
Additionally, spills of domestic effluents reach the ocean directly or through rivers (Hinrichsen 1998, Thorne-Miller 1999). Thus, heavy metals and other toxic substances can be diffused through currents and progressively transmitted through the food chain at least in a regional level (Valqui 2004, Apaza et al. 2004). Oil spillage and extreme noise affect the species in areas near beach resorts in the vicinity of big cities (Valqui 2004).
A common denominator for all regions is that there is very law enforcement regarding the Marine Otter´s conservation status and protection, as hunting or killings on fish farms do not implicate consequences to the offenders.
Global natural factors like the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) also may considerably affect the Marine Otter population (Vianna et al. 2010), due to the more or less drastic climatic and oceanographic changes that cause the mortality of several marine communities from fish to mammals (Apaza and Figari 1999, Wang and Fiedler 2006).
|Conservation Actions:||The Marine Otter is protected in Argentina, Chile, and Peru. It is listed in Appendix I of CITES (Nowak 1991) and in Appendix I of the Bonn Convention (Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)).|
|Errata reason:||The sentence "A common denominator for all regions is that there is very law enforcement regarding the Marine Otter´s conservation status and protection, as hunting or killings on fish farms do not implicate consequences to the offenders." has been reworded to "common denominator for all the range countries is the weak law enforcement in Marine otter conservation as hunting or killings of otters at fish farms do not implicate consequences to the offenders" to correct a typing error in the original text.|
Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Valqui, J., and Mangel, J.C. 2011. Nuevo registro de la nutria marina Lontra felina (Molina, 1782) al norte de su distribución actual. Ecología Aplicada 10(2): 87-91.
Apaza, M. and Figari, A. 1999. Mortandad de aves marinas durante “El Niño 1997-1998” en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica-Peru. Revista Peruana de Biología Extraordinario: 110-117.
Apaza, M., Valqui, J. and Castañeda, C. 2003. Estado de Conservación de las Poblaciones de Spheniscus humboldti y Lontra felina en la Costa Norte del Perú. Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Lima.
Apaza, M., Valqui, J., Mangel, J., Roca, M., Alfaro, J., Santillan, L., Perret, J.P., Onton, G., Castaneda, C., Munemura, G., Tovar, A. 2004. Estado de Conservación de Lontra felina (Molina, 1782) en la Costa Peruana. Reporte para la Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, Lima.
Brack Egg, A. 1978. Situacion actual de las nutrias (Lutrinae: Mustelidae) en el Peru. In: N. Duplaix (ed.), Otters: Proceedings of the first working meeting of the otter specialist group, pp. 76-84. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland.
Brownell Jr., R.L. 1978. Ecology and conservation of the marine otter L. felina. In: N. Duplaix (ed.), Otters: Proceedings of the first working meeting of the otter specialist group, pp. 104-106. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland.
Cabello, C.C. 1978. La nutria de Mar L. felina en la Isla de Chiloe. In: N. Duplaix (ed.), Proceedings of the first working meeting of the otter specialist group, pp. 108-119. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, Switzerland.
Cabello, C.C. 1983. La nutria de mar en la Isla de Chiloe. Boletín Tecnico CONAF: 37-61.
Cabrera, A. 1957. Catálogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur: I (Metatheria-Unguiculata-Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadivia" e Instituto Nacional de Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4(1): 1-307.
Cassini, M.H. 2008. Present status of Lontra felina in Argentina. Endangered Species Update 25(2): 57-60.
Castilla, J.C. 1982. Nuevas observaciones sobre conducta, ecología y densidad de Lutra felina (Molina, 1782) (Carnívora: Mustelidae) en Chile. Publicación Ocasional Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 38: 197-206.
Castilla, J.C. and Bahamondes, I. 1979. Observaciones conductuales y ecologicas sobre Lutra felina (Molina) 1782 (Carnivora: Mustelidae) en las zonas central y centro-norte de Chile. Archivos de Biologia y Medicina Experimentales, Santiago 12: 119-132.
Chehebar, C. 1990. Action plan for Latin American otters. IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Ebensperger, L.A. and Castilla, J.C. 1992. Seleccion de habitat en tierra por la nutria marina, Lutra felina, en Isla Pan de Azucar, Chile.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Central Neotropics, Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Estes, J.A. 1986. Marine otters and their environments. Ambio 15: 181-183.
Hinrichsen, D. 1998. Coastal waters of the world: trends threats and strategies. Washington DC.
Housse, P.R. 1953. Animales salvajes de Chile en su clasificacion moderna: su vida y costumbres. Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Iriarte, J.A. and Jaksic, F.M. 1986. The fur trade in Chile: An overview of seventy-five years of export data (1910-1984). Biological Conservation 38: 243-253.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 23 June 2015).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 14 September 2017).
Koepfli, K.P. and Wayne, R.K. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of otters (Carnivora: Mustelidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Journal of Zoology 246: 410-416.
Koepfli, K.-P., Deer, K.A., Slater, G.J., Begg, C., Begg, K., Grassman, L., Lucherini, M., Veron, G. and Wayne, R.K. 2008. Multigene phylogeny of the Mustelidae: resolving relationships, tempo and biogeographic history of a mammalian adaptive radiation. BMC Biology 6: 10. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-10.
Larivière, S. 1998. Lontra feline. Mammalian Species 575: 1-5.
Macdonald, S. and Mason, C. 1990. Threats. In: P. Foster-Turley, S. Macdonald and C. Mason (eds), Otters: an action plan for their conservation, pp. 11-14. IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Majluf, P., Babock, E., Riveros J.C., Arias, M. and Alderete, W. 2002. Catch and Bycatch of Sea Birds and Marine Mammals in the Small-Scale Fishery of Punta San Juan, Peru. Conservation Biology 16(5): 1333-1343.
Mangel, J.C. and Alfaro-Shigueto, J. 2004. Comunidades pesqueras y la conservacion de la nutria marina (Lontra felina) en el sur de Peru. Revista de Conservación Regional 2: 5-10.
Mangel J.C., Whitty, T., Medina-Vogel, G., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Caceres, C. and Godley, B.J. 2010. Latitudinal variation in diet and patterns of human interaction in the marine otter. Marine Mammal Science 30: 95-96.
Mattern, T., Ellenberg, U. and Luna-Jorquera, G. 2002. A South American Marine Otter Lontra felina preys upon chicks of the Peruvian Diving Petrel Pelecanoides garnotii. Marine Ornithology 30: 95-96.
Medina, G. 1995. Feeding habits of marine otter (Lutra felina) in southern Chile. Proceedings of the International Otter Colloquium 6: 65-68.
Medina-Vogel, G., Bartheld, J.V.L., Alavarez, R.E. and Delgado, C.R. 2006. Population assessment and habitat use by marine otter (Lontra felina) in Southern Chile. Wildlife Biology 12: 191–199.
Medina-Vogel, G., Boher, F., Flores, G., Santibanez, A. and Soto-Azat, C. 2007. Spacing behavior of marine otters (Lontra felina) in relation to land refuges and fishery wastes in Central Chile. Journal of Mammology 88: 487–494.
Medina-Vogel, G., Delgado-Rodriguez, C., Alvarez, R.E. and Bartheld, J.L. 2004. Feeding ecology of the marine otter (Lutra felina) in a rocky seashore of the south of Chile. Marine Mammal Science 20(1): 134–144.
Medina-Vogel, G., Merino, L.O., Monsalve Alarcón, R. and Vianna, J. de A. 2008. Coastal-marine discontinuities, critical patch size and isolation: implications for marine otter conservation. Animal Conservation 11: 57-64.
Miller, S.D., Rottmann, J., Raedeke, K.J. and Taber, R.D. 1983. Endangered mammals of Chile: status and conservation. Biological Conservation 25: 335-352.
Molina, G.I. 1782. Saggio Sulla Storia Naturale del Chili. Tomasso d’Aquino, Bologna, Italy.
Moreno, C. 2001. Community patterns generated by human harvesting on Chilean shores: a review. Aquatic Conservation 11: 19-30.
Moreno, C., Sutherland, J. and Jara, F. 1984. Man as predator in the intertidal zone of Southern Chile. Oikos 42: 155-160.
Nowak, R.M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.
Ostfeld, R.S., Ebensperger, L., Klosterman, L. and Castilla, J.C. 1989. Foraging, activity budget, and social behavior of the South American marine otter Lutra felina (Molina 1782). National Geographic Research 5: 422-438.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Parera, A. 1996. Las nutrias verdaderas de la Argentina. Boletín Tecnico de la Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics, The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Rozzi, R. and Torres-Mura, J.C. 1990. Observaciones del Chungungo (Lutra felina) al sur de la Isla Grande de Chiloé: antecedentes para su conservación. Medio Ambiente 11(1): 24-28.
Ruiz, E. 2009. Estudio etológico de la nutria marina Lontra felina (Molina, 1782) en una ambiente antrópico, la bahía de Pucusana -Lima, Perú de junio a agosto del 2008. Tesis para optar el título de Biólogo, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM). .
Sánchez, R. 1992. Distribución y abundancia del gato marino Lutra felina en el Departamento de Ica.
Sánchez, R. and Ayala, L. 2006. Evaluacion de la distribucion y abundancia del gato marino Lontra felina en la costa central y norte del Peru durante el otono del 2006. Reporte APECO.
Schweigger, E. 1964. El litoral peruano. Universidad Nacional "Frederico Villarreal", Lima.
Sielfeld, W. 1997. Las áreas protegidas de la XII Región de Chile en la perspectiva de los mamíferos marinos. Estudios Oceanológicos 16: 87-107.
Sielfeld, W.K. 1989. Sobreposicion de nicho y patrones de distribucion de Lutra felina y L. provocax (Mustelidae, Carnivora) en el medio marino de Sud America austral. Andes Museo de Historia Natural Valparaiso 20: 103-108.
Sielfeld, W.K. 1990. Dieta del chungungo (Lutra felina (Molina, 1782)) (Mustelidae, Carnivora) en Chile austral. Investigacion Cientificas y Tecnicas, Serie: Ciencias del Mar 1: 23-29.
Sielfeld, W.K. 1992. Abundancias relativas de Lutra felina (Molina, 1782) y L. provocax Thomas 1908 en el litoral de Chile austral. Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Serie: Ciencias del Mar 2: 3-11.
Sielfeld, W.K. and Castilla, J.C. 1999. Estado de conservación y conocimiento de las nutrias en Chile. Estudios Oceanológicos 18: 69-79.
Thorne-Miller, B. 1999. The living ocean: understanding and protecting marine biodiversity. Washington DC.
Tschudi, J. 1844. Reiseskizzen aus Peru. Leipzig.
Ulloa, R., Zambrano, M. and Chevarria, A., 2010. Expediente Tecnico Area de conservación regional Morro Sama-Quebrada de Burros Tacna. Perù.
Valqui, J. 2004. Comportamiento de la nutria marina Lontra felina (Molina, 1782) en una ambiente antrópico, la bahía de Pucusana -Lima, Perú. Tesis para optar el título de Biólogo, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM). .
Valqui, J. 2012. The marine otter Lontra felina (Molina, 1782): A review of its present status and implications for future conservation . Mammalian Biology 77: 75-83.
Valqui, J., Hartl G.B., Zachos, F.E. 2010. Non-invasive genetic analysis reveals high levels of mtDNA variability in the endangered South-American marine otter (Lontra felina). Conservation Genetics 11: 2067-2072.
Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1972. A systematic review of the Nearctic and Neotropical river otters (Genus Lutra, Mustelidae, Carnivora). Life Sciences Contributions of the Royal Ontario Museum 80: l-104.
Van Zyll de Jong, C.G. 1987. A phylogenetic study of the Lutrinae (Carnivora; Mustelidae) using morphological data. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 2536-2544.
Vianna. J., Ayerdi, P., Medina-Vogel, G., Mangel, J.C., Zeballos, H., Apaza, M. and Faugeron, S. 2010. Phylogeography of the Marine Otter (Lontra felina): historical and contemporary factors determining its distribution. Journal of Heredity 101(6): 676-689.
Wang, C. and Fiedler, P.C. 2006. ENSO variability and the eastern tropical Pacific: A review. Progress in Oceanography 69: 239-266.
Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora, Family Mustelidae. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, pp. 309-325. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition, pp. 279-344. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Valqui, J. & Rheingantz, M.L. 2015. Lontra felina. (errata version published in 2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T12303A117058682.Downloaded on 21 September 2017.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|