Lacerta schreiberi 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Lacertidae

Scientific Name: Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878
Common Name(s):
English Iberian Emerald Lizard, Schreiber's Green Lizard
Spanish Lagarto Verdinegro, Lagarto Verdinegro
Taxonomic Notes: A phylogeographic analysis of this species (Paulo 2001) indicated two divergent lineages distributed respectively in the Central Mountain System (Sierras de Bejar, Gredos and Guadarrama) and in the rest of its distribution. However, studies in the zone of contact between these two lineages suggest that speciation has not yet taken place (Crochet and Dubois 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Paulo Sá-Sousa, Rafael Marquez, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. & Temple, H.J. (Global Reptile Assessment)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is largely restricted to the northwestern and central mountain systems of Spain, and northern and western Portugal, with a number of isolated populations in the mountains and coastal areas of southern Portugal and Spain. It can be found from close to sea level to 2,100 m asl (Central Mountain System).
Countries occurrence:
Portugal; Spain
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):2100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It can be common in optimal habitat, but some fragmented populations are very rare, and overall it appears to be in significant decline. The southern population isolates in both Spain and Portugal are all very rare, and the one on Sierra Morena in Spain is possibly extinct.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species lives in humid, bushy areas of shrubland, woodland edges, open woodland (deciduous, mixed and pine), along river and stream sides, overgrown sites and close to fences in pastureland. It is especially tightly linked to streams in the southern part of its distribution. On average the females lay clutches of 11 to 18 eggs.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is sensitive to habitat alteration. Populations in the south of Spain are threatened by habitat loss, largely through deforestation, forest fires and alteration of streamside habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Annex II of the Bern Convention. It occurs in several protected areas. There has been an EU-Life project for this species in Portugal.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Andreu, A., Bea, A., Braña, F., Galán, P., López-Jurado, L.F., Pérez-Mellado, V., Pleguezuelos, J.M. and Salvador, A. 1998. Fauna Ibérica. Reptiles. 10: 1-705.

Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and Amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford.

Brito, J.C., Abreu, F.E., Paulo, O.S., Rosa, H.D. and Crespo, E.G. 1996. Distribution of Schreiber's green lizard (Lacerta schreiberi) in Portugal: a predictive model. Herpetological Journal: 43-47.

Brito, J.C., Godinho, R., Luis, C., Paulo, O.S. and Crespo, E.G. 1999. Management strategies for conservation of the lizard Lacerta schreiberi in Portugal. Biol. Conserv., 89: 311-319..

Brito, J.C., Luis, C., Godinho, M. R., Paulo, O. S. and Crespo, E. G. 1998. Bases para a Conservação do Lagarto-de-água (Lacerta schreiberi). Estudos de Biologia e Conservação da Natureza. nº 23. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza, Ministerio do Ambiente, Lisboa..

Brito, J.C., Paulo, O.S. and Crespo, E.G. 1998. Distribution and habitats of Schreiber's green lizard (Lacerta schreiberi) in Portugal. Herpetological Journal: 187-194.

Crochet, P.-A. and Dubois, A. 2004. Recent changes in the taxonomy of European amphibians and reptiles. In: J.-P. Gasc, A. Cabela,J. Crnobrnja-Isailovic, D. Dolmen, K. Grossenbacher, P. Haffner, J. Lescure, H. Martens, J.P Martínez Rica., H. Maurin, M.E. Oliveira, T.S. Sofianidou, M. Veith and A. Zuiderwijk (eds), Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Re-edition, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.

Godinho, R., Domingues, V., Crespo, E. G. and Ferrand, N. 2006. Extensive intraspecific polymorphism detected by SSCP at the nuclear C-mos gene in the endemic Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi. Molecular Ecology, 15 (3): 731-738..

Godinho, R., Ferrand, N. and Crespo, E. G. 2001. Phylogeny of the Iberian Schreiber's Green Lizard (Lacerta schreiberi): preliminary data on mitochrondrial and nuclear markers reveal discrepant patterns. Pp. 33-39. In: Elbing, K., Nettmann, H. K. (Eds.). Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte und zum Schutz der Smaragdeidechsen (Lacerta s. str.). Mertensiella, 13..

Godinho, R., Mendonca, B., Crespo, E. G. and Ferrand, N. 2006. Genealogy of the nuclear beta-fibrinogen locus in a highly structured lizard species: comparison with mtDNA and evidence for intragenic recombination in the hybrid zone. Heredity, 96 (6): 454-463..

Godinho, R., Paulo, O. S., Ferrand, N., Luis, C., Rosa, H. D. and Crespo, E. G. 2003. Major patterns of population differentiation in the Iberian Schreiber's green lizard (Lacerta schreiberi) inferred from protein polymorphism. Herpetological Journal, 13: 35-42..

IUCN. 2009. European Species on the IUCN Red List. Available at: (Accessed: 22 June 2009).

Malkmus, R. 1982. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. Salamandra 18(3-4): 218-299.

Malkmus, R. 1983. Nachtrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals. Salamandra 19(1/2): 71-83.

Malkmus, R. 1984. Herpetologische Ausflüge in die Sierra da Malcata/Portugal. Herpetofauna: 6-11.

Malkmus, R. 1985. Herpetologische Streifzüge durch die Serra da Estrela. Herpetofauna: 25-30.

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Malkmus, R. 2004. Amphibians and reptiles of Portugal, Madeira and the Azores-archipelago. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell (Germany).

Meinig, H. and Schlüpmann, M. 1987. Herpetologische Eindrücke einer Iberienreise. Herpetofauna 9(49): 11-24.

Nettmann, H.-K. 2002. Die Smaragdeidechsen (Lacerta s.str.) – Eine Übersicht über Verwandtschaft und Formenvielfalt. Mertensiella 13: 11-32.

Paulo, O.F. 2001. The Phylogeography of Reptiles of the Iberian Peninsula. PhD Thesis, University of London, London.

Paulo, O. S., Dias, C., Bruford, M. W., Jordan, W. C. and Nichols, R. A. 2001. The persistence of Pliocene populations through the Pleistocene climatic cycles: evidence from the phylogeography of an Iberian lizard. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 268: 1625-1630..

Paulo, O. S., Jordan, W. C., Bruford, M. W. and Nichols, R. A. 2002. Using nested clade analysis to assess the history of colonization and the persistence of populations of an Iberian lizard. Mol. Ecol., 11: 809-819..

Pleguezuelos, J.M., Márquez, R. and Lizana, M. 2002. Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la naturaleza-Associación Herpetológica Española., Madrid.

Regalado, P.G. 1984. Estudio sobre la biometria, folidosis, diseno y coloracion de Lacerta schreiberi, Bedriaga, 1878. (Sauria, Lacertidae). Alytes: 25-54.

Salvador, A. 1984. Lacerta schreiberi - Iberische Smaragdeidechse. In: Böhme, W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/I., Echsen II (Lacerta)., pp. 69-81. Aula-Verlag., Wiesbaden.

Sindaco, R. and Jeremčenko, V.K. 2008. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic. 1. Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Turtles, Crocodiles, Amphibians and Lizards of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy).

Citation: Paulo Sá-Sousa, Rafael Marquez, Valentin Pérez-Mellado, Iñigo Martínez-Solano. 2009. Lacerta schreiberi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T11113A3251580. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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