|Scientific Name:||Kiunga ballochi Allen, 1983|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2ace ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F. & Tan, H.H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)|
Assessed as Critically Endangered due to an inferred population decline of greater than 80% over the past ten years. This is inferred from a severe decline in habitat quality and from an increase in water pollution within the probable distribution of the species. In addition, this species has not been found in the wild for over ten years. The proposed searches for this species are urgently required. If no individuals are located, K. ballochi may in fact be extinct in the wild (Jenkins, pers. comm.).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is known only from a few small creeks along a 15-20 km stretch of the Ok Tedi Mine supply road between Kiunga and Tabubil which is part of the Upper Fly River system, Papua New Guinea. Most specimens have been collected from tributaries of the Ok Smak River. It is probably restricted to tributaries of the Ok Smak River and tributaries to adjacent rivers within the upper Fly River basin (Jenkins, pers. comm.).|
The Ok Smak River lies within the upper Fly River basin, but as K. ballochi is not likely to be found in the main stem of the Fly River, it is therefore restricted to an area which covers 15,283 km².
Native:Papua New Guinea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||When it was first discovered in 1982, the species was reported as being moderately common. Attempts to locate the fish at the type locality in 1994-1995 were unsuccessful. The species has not been found in the wild for over ten years in the type or adjacent localities (Jenkins, Pers. comm.).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||K. ballochi is a demersal species that inhabits narrow, clear creeks flowing through rainforest in generally flat terrain. Species from the family Pseudomugliidae normally congregate in schools.|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||This species is in the aquarium trade but is no longer collected from the wild.|
|Major Threat(s):||It is suspected that K. ballochi has been severely impacted by habitat degradation. The type locality of this species and adjacent suitable habitats have been extensively damaged by associated activities of the Ok Tedi copper and gold mine (Jenkins, pers. comm.). Not only has the freshwater habitat of this species been altered through the construction of a road leading to Ok Tedi mine, but its proximity to the mine means that it is likely to be affected by pollution. Sedimentation and toxic runoff has greatly reduced fish catches from the Ok Tedi and Fly River systems. It has been reported that even after the mine is closed in approximately fifteen years, recovery may take another twenty years. Exotic fish species are also a concern in this region, which may be affecting K. ballochi (WWF 2001).|
|Conservation Actions:||Further searches for K. ballochi in more remote areas surrounding the type locality have been proposed for August 2007 (Jenkins, pers. comm.). There are no conservation measures in place at present.|
Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guniea.
Baensch, H.A. and Riehl, R. 1991. Aquarien atlas. Bd. 3. Melle: Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (editors and compilers). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Breder, C.M. and Rosen, D.E. 1966. Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, Unpublished.
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Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Jenkins, A. 2007. Pers. comm. SRLI Freshwater Fish Assessment Evaluation Workshop.
Kailola, P.J. 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea. A revised and annotated checklist. Vol. 1. Myxinidae to Synbranchidae. Research Section, Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Munro, I.S.R. 1967. The Fishes of New Guinea. Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Port Moresby, New Guinea.
Tappin, Adrian R. 2006. Home of the Rainbowfish. Available at: http://members.optushome.com.au/chelmon/index.htm.
Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo (versio 10/03). Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.
Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.
WWF - World Wildlife Fund. 2001. Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests. Available at: www.worldwildlife.org.
|Citation:||Jenkins, A., Kullander, F.F. & Tan, H.H. 2009. Kiunga ballochi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T11021A3239370.Downloaded on 23 May 2018.|
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