|Scientific Name:||Passerina ciris|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Butcher, G., Pashley, D., Rosenberg, K. & Wells, J.|
This species has declined over the long term and apparently continues to do so at a moderately rapid rate. It is therefore considered to be Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||Passerina ciris occurs in two geographically disjunct populations: a western population breeding from northern Mexico to northern Texas, USA, and wintering in south-west Mexico; and an eastern population breeding along the Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Florida (USA) and wintering in southern Florida and the Caribbean (Lowther et al. 1999). The global population is estimated to be 3.6 million birds (Rich et al. 2003). Populations have declined since the mid-1960s and the species has been extirpated from parts of its range in south-west and east USA and north-east Mexico (Lowther et al. 1999, Sauer et al. 2003, NAS 2004, USFWS 2004). Breeding Bird Survey data from the continental USA (and for five years from north-east Mexico) indicates that the population has declined by 55% over the last 30 years (Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002, Rich et al. 2003), with the steepest declines in the eastern population.|
Native:Bahamas; Belize; Costa Rica; Cuba; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; United States
Vagrant:Cayman Islands; Jamaica
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. (2004).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The western population breeds in scrub-brush habitat that remains largely intact, and the eastern population inhabits coastal plain agricultural land (Lowther et al. 1999).|
|Major Threat(s):||Loss and intensification of habitat through urban development, road building and agricultural intensification, and capture for the cagebird trade are the primary threats (Lowther et al. 1999, Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002, Phillips Lynch 2004), with part of the declines also being attributed to brood-parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbird. Trapping and sale in local markets occurs in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and overseas to international markets in Europe, South America and Asia (Ramos 1982, Iñigo-Elias 1986, Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Tightly control any ongoing trade in the species. Develop an appropriate management strategy to reverse population declines. Develop a comprehensive conservation strategy including adaptive harvesting for populations in the Caribbean and Latin America (Iñigo-Elias 2006).
Iñigo-Elias, E. E. 1986. Active trade threatens Mexican avifauna. TRAFFIC Bulletin 6(4): 6-7.
Iñigo-Elias, E. E. 2006. Live bird trade with neartic-neotropical migratory passerines in Latin America and the Caribbean. Wings without borders: IV North American Ornithological Conference, October 3-7, 2006, Veracruz, Mexico, pp. 156. American Ornithologists' Union, Waco, TX, USA.
Iñigo-Elias, E. E.; Rosenberg, K. V.; Wells, J. V. 2002. The danger of beauty. Birdscope 16(3): 1,14-15.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Lowther, P. E.; Lanyon, S. M.; Thompson, C. W. 1999. Painted Bunting Passerina ciris. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 398, pp. 1-24. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and the American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.
NAS. 2004. Audobon WatchList species, painted bunting Passerina ciris. Audobon WatchList: http://audubon2.org/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=156#.
Phyllips Lynch, I. 2004. Bird without equal. Wildlife in Carolina 68: 24-29.
Ramos, M. 1982. El comercio y la explotación de las aves vivas en México. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
Rich, T. D.; Beardmore, C. J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P. J.; Bradstreet, M. S. W.; Butcher, G. S.; Demarest, D.; Dunn, E. H., et al. 2003. Partners in flight north American Landbird conservation plan.
Rich, T.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Bradstreet, M.S.W.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dunn, E.H.; Hunter, W.C.; Inigo-Elias, E.E.; Martell, A.M.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Wendt, J.S.; Will, T.C. 2004. Partners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.
Sauer, J. R.; Hines, J. E.; Fallon, J. 2003. The north American breeding bird survey, results and analysis 1966-2002. version 2003.1.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2004. North Carolina endangered species home page.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Passerina ciris. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
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