|Scientific Name:||Vermivora bachmanii|
|Species Authority:||(Audubon, 1833)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Budney, G. & Rosenberg, K.|
This last confirmed breeding record of this species was in 1937, and it has not been reported since 1988. It may have gone extinct as a result of habitat destruction both on the breeding and wintering grounds. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until all remnant patches of possible breeding habitat (e.g. Congaree swamp in South Carolina) have been searched, and recent unconfirmed reports have been followed up. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
|Range Description:||Vermivora bachmanii is known to have bred in Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Alabama and South Carolina, USA, and there are breeding-season records from various other south-east states. Birds wintered in Cuba and occasionally Florida, USA. The last nest was found in 1937, but there have been recent (unconfirmed) sightings (K. Rosenberg in litt. 2003). Small areas of suitable habitat remain, and the species may still survive (Curson et al. 1994).|
Possibly extinct:Cuba; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Any remaining population is assumed to be tiny (numbering fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals), with the last (unconfirmed) sighting in 1988.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It bred in seasonally flooded swamp-forest, always near standing water (Curson et al. 1994), apparently showing a strong association with canebrakes of the bamboo Arundinaria gigantea. Winter habitat requirements are much less specific, with records from dry forest, wetlands and urban areas (Hamel 1995), but apparently favouring wooded areas with flowering Hibiscus trees (Curson et al. 1994). Breeding occurred from March-June, with the nest constructed in the shelter of a dense bush or tangle of vegetation (Curson et al. 1994).|
|Major Threat(s):||The drainage of river-bottom swamplands (Curson et al. 1994), and the near-total clearance of canebrakes in the USA, combined with the conversion of much of Cuba to sugarcane plantation, offer the best explanation for the disappearance of this species.|
Conservation Actions Underway
There is currently no action being taken for this species. Searches within the large expanses of suitable habitat that remain on the wintering grounds would be costly and most probably futile (A. Mitchell in litt. 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Systematically search the small areas of remaining breeding habitat (Curson et al. 1994, A. Mitchell in litt. 1998).
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Curson, J.; Quinn, D.; Beadle, D. 1994. New World warblers. A&C Black/Christopher Helm, London.
Hamel, P. B. 1995. Bachman's Warbler (Vermivora bachmani). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 150, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Vermivora bachmanii. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 May 2013.|
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