|Scientific Name:||Mimus melanotis|
|Species Authority:||(Gould, 1837)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||The genus Nesomimus has been subsumed into the genus Mimus following SACC (2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Curry, R., Tye, A., Vargas, H. & Wiedenfeld, D.|
This species is classified as Endangered because it is likely to be declining within its very small range on a single island, as a result of habitat degradation and the impact of alien invasive species.
|Range Description:||Mimus melanotis is endemic to the island of San Cristóbal in the central Galápagos islands, Ecuador (Sibley and Monroe 1990). Its population has recently been estimated at c.8,000 individuals, on the basis that it occupies c.25% of the 552 km2 area of the island, with occupied areas holding approximately 0.6 birds/ha (R. Curry in litt. 2005).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||R. Curry (in litt. 2005) estimated that this species occupies c.25% of the 552 km2 area of San Cristobal, i.e. 138 km2. The density of birds in occupied habitat is 0.6 birds / ha, giving a total population size estimate of 8,280 birds, perhaps best rounded to c.8,000 individuals. This roughly equates to c.5,300 mature individuals. However, the population may be significantly smaller than this (D. Wiedenfeld in litt. 2012).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occupies a wide range of habitats from lowlands up to the island summit at 715 m, including arid open lowland scrub, mangroves, scrubby woodland with scattered trees (Bursera spp.) and arborescent cacti (Opuntia spp.), low woodlands of introduced guava (Psidium guajava) and taller patches of forest. It tends to avoid dense lowland forest, taller, wetter woodland, grassland and urban areas (Cody 2005). The species forages on the ground for arthropods, also taking fruit and berries and occasionally picking ticks (Acarina) off marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus spp.). It breeds in January to April, apparently not cooperatively, in contrast to other Nesomimus spp. (Cody 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||Several threats are suspected to be causing population decline, including introduced species (diseases, parasites and predators), habitat degradation, and human disturbance (Vargas 1996, Wiedenfeld and Jiménez 2008, R. Curry in litt. 2005, H. Vargas in litt. 2005, A. Tye in litt. 2005, D. Wiedenfeld in litt. 2005). The presence of the Dipterid nestling parasite Philornis downsi is likely a significant threat (Wiedenfeld et al. 2007). A number of disease vectors have been introduced, including Culex quinquefasciatus (vector of avian malaria) and Simulium bipunctatus (Peck et al. 1998, Vargas and Bensted-Smith 2000, Whiteman et al. 2005), and chickens in the growing number of chicken farms have brought in new diseases and may act as intermediary hosts (Gottdenker et al. 2005). The incidence of parasites and diseases could be more important in the future with the increase in frequency and intensity of El Niño events and the more humid conditions in the islands (H. Vargas in litt. 2005, Wiedenfeld et al. 2007). Habitat loss and degradation is caused by invasive introduced plants (P. guajava, Eugenia jambos, Rubus niveus) (Vargas 1996), overgrazing by goats, and increased human settlement. Black rats and feral cats have been introduced and are thought to be responsible for high nest predation rates (Curry 1989). The relative importance and impacts of these different threats are not yet known.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The Galápagos National Park was gazetted in 1959, and includes almost all the land area of the islands. In 1979, the islands were declared a World Heritage Site (Jackson 1985). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population to determine trends. Research relative importance of different threats in order to identify effective conservation actions. Research into methods of control or eradication of the parasite Philornis downsi (D. Wiedenfeld in litt. 2012). Avoid further introduction of alien species.
Cody, M. L. 2004. Family Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D.A. (ed.), Handbook of birds of the world, pp. 448-495. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Curry, R. L. 1989. Geographic variation in social organization of Galapagos mockingbirds: ecological correlates of group territoriality and co-operative breeding. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 25: 147-160.
Gottdenker, N. L.; Walsh, T.; Vargas, H.; Merkel, J.; Jimenez, G. U.; Miller, R.E.; Dailey, M.; Parker, P. G. 2005. Assessing the risks of introduced chickens and their pathogens to native birds in the Galapagos Archipelago. Biological Conservation 126: 429-439.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Jackson, M. H. 1985. Galapagos: a natural history guide. Calgary University Press, Calgary, Canada.
Peck, S. B.; Heraty, J.; Landry, B.; Sinclair, B. J. 1998. Introduced insect fauna of an oceanic archipelago: the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. American Entomologist 44: 218-237.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Vargas, H. 1996. What is happening with the avifauna of Sab Cristobal? Notícias de Galápagos: 23-24.
Vargas, H.; Bensted-Smith, R. 2000. Past and present ornithology in Galápagos. In: Sitwell, N.; Baert, L.; Cuppois, G. (ed.), Proceedings of the Symposium: Science and Conservation in Galápagos, pp. 47-52. l'Institut Royal des Siences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels.
Whiteman, N. K.; Goodman, S.J.; Sinclair, B.J.; Walsh, T.; Cunningham, A. A.; Kramer, L.D.; Parker, P. G. 2005. Establishment of the avian disease vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) on Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Ibis 147: 844-847.
Wiedenfeld, D. A.; Jiménez, G. A.; Fessl, B.; Kleindorfer, S.; Valerezo, J. C. 2007. Distribution of the introduced parasitic fly Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) in the Galapagos Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology 13: 14-19.
Wiedenfeld, D. A.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. A. 2008. Critical problems for bird conservation in the Galápagos Islands. Cotinga: 22-27.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Mimus melanotis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2013.|
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