|Scientific Name:||Pterodroma defilippiana|
|Species Authority:||(Giglioli & Salvadori, 1869)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small breeding range at three or four locations, and is therefore susceptible to stochastic events or human impacts. It is likely to have been extirpated from one island some time ago, but the bulk of the population is presumably stable.
|Range Description:||Pterodroma defilippiana is an east Pacific seabird, currently breeding on three or four islands off the coast of Chile. In the Des Venturadas Islands, 10,000 or more birds occurred on San Ambrosio in 1970, with an additional 150-200 pairs on San Félix. In the Juan Fernández Islands, it has possibly been extirpated on Robinson Crusoe, and the population on Santa Clara was suggested at hundreds, possibly thousands, in 1986, but available habitat was found for only 100-200 individuals in 1991. It ranges at sea in the nearby Peru Current, south of the equator (Roberson and Bailey 1991, Spear et al. 1992).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The world population may be no greater than 20,000 individuals, possibly fewer. It is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equating to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It breeds on sheltered cliff-ledges, crevices, caverns and amongst boulders at the foot of lava cliffs. It nests colonially, with eggs apparently laid July-September, chicks hatching in October and colonies abandoned in December-January. However, it has been reported breeding in February on San Félix.|
|Major Threat(s):||Feral cats and coatis are blamed for the possible extinction on Robinson Crusoe, and cats have caused extensive mortality on San Félix. Rats have been cited as a predator but on which island is unknown. Santa Clara and San Ambrosio appear to be predator-free.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The Juan Fernández Islands were designated as a national park in 1935 (protected from 1967) and a biosphere reserve in 1977. The Chilean government began a habitat restoration programme in 1997 (J. C. Torres-Mura in litt. 1999), and the islands have been nominated for World Heritage listing (Hulm 1995). Conservation Actions Proposed
Remove all introduced mammals, initially within intensively managed, fenced, feasibility study areas. Survey to establish population size, local distribution and breeding productivity.
Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Giglioli; Salvadori. 1869. Pterodroma arminjoniana arminjoniana, Pterodroma defilippiana, Puffinus assimilis elegans. Ibis New ser. Vol. 5: 62-63, 68.
Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S.; Spear, L. B. 1996. Identification at sea of Cook's, de Filippi's and Pycroft's petrels. Western Birds 27: 57-64.
Hulm, P. 1995. Robinson Crusoe's Islands face an uncertain future. Plant Talk: 19-21.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Roberson, D.; Bailey, S. F. 1991. Cookilaria Petrels in the eastern Pacific Ocean. American Birds 45: 1067-1081.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Spear, L. B.; Howell, S. N. G.; Ainley, D. G. 1992. Notes on the at-sea identification of some Pacific gadfly petrels (Genus: Pterodroma). Colonial Waterbirds 15: 202-218.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Pterodroma defilippiana. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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