|Scientific Name:||Fulmarus glacialoides|
|Species Authority:||(Smith, 1840)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species breeds along the coast of Antarctica and outlying islands, including the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Sandwich del Sur), South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island (to Norway) and Peter Island. At sea it can range as far north as the coats of South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and South America up to central Chile and southern Brazil1.|
Native:Angola (Angola); Antarctica; Argentina; Australia; Bouvet Island; Brazil; Chile; Ecuador; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Namibia; New Zealand; Peru; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Uruguay
Present - origin uncertain:French Southern Territories (the); Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Norfolk Island
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Brooke (2004) estimated the global population to number around 4,000,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This marine species is usually assoaciated with cold waters fringing the ice pack. It feeds mostly on crustaceans, fish and cephalopods with the proportion of each varying locally. Most food is taken by surface-seizing whilst in flocks. It attends trawlers and will take galley refuse from ships. Breeding begins in November and it is highly colonial, breeding on steep rocky slopes and precipitous cliffs on sheltered ledges or in hollows. It is a migratory species, ranging widely over the Southern Ocean (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H. 2006. Antarctic birds breed later in response to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(16): 6248-6251.
Brooke, M. De L. 2004. Albatrosses and petrels across the world. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Jenouvrier, S.; Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H. 2003. Effects of climate variability on the temporal population dynamics of Southern Fulmars. Journal of Animal Ecology 72: 576-587.
Weimerskirch, H.; Inchausti, P.; Guinet, C.; Barbraud, C. 2003. Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15: 249-256.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Fulmarus glacialoides. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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