|Scientific Name:||Macronectes giganteus|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Bretagnolle, V., Cooper, J., Croxall, J., Deliry, C., Fraser, W., Hilton, G., Keys, H., Patterson-Fraser, D., Phillips, R., Pistorius, P. & Ryan, P.|
Recent analysis of trend data for the global population over the past three generations (64 years) gives a best case estimate of a 17 % increase and a worst case scenario of a 7.2 % decline (Chown et al 2008 unpubl.report to SCAR); declines consequently do not approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable and the species has been downlisted from Near Threatened to Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Macronectes giganteus breeds on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Staten Island and islands off Chubut Province (Argentina), South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), the South Orkney (Orcadas del Sur) and South Shetland Islands (Shetland del Sur), islands near the Antarctic Continent and Peninsula, Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), Crozet Islands (French Southern Territories), Heard Island and Macquarie Island (Australia), with smaller populations on Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha (St Helena to UK), Diego Ramirez and Isla Noir (Chile), Kerguelen Islands (French Southern Territories), and four localities on the Antarctic Continent including Terre Adélie. In the 1980s, the population was estimated at 38,000 pairs (Hunter 1985), declining by 18% to 31,000 pairs in the late 1990s (Rootes 1988). Populations at Heard and Macquarie declined 50% between the 1960s and late 1980s (Woehler 1991, Woehler 2006). Many Antarctic Peninsula populations decreased to the mid-1980s (e.g. >50% at Signy, South Orkneys) (Patterson et al. undated). The population at Terre Adélie declined from c.80 pairs in the 1960s to 10-15 pairs in 2000. However, recent data indicate a number of populations have stabilised or increased, e.g. Possession Island (Crozet) (Patterson et al. undated), Gough Island (Cuthbert and Sommer in litt 2004)and Heard Island (Woehler 2006). A comprehensive 2004-2005 survey of all breeding colonies on the Falkland Islands recorded 19,523 breeding pairs (Reid and Huin 2005). This represents a dramatic increase over the previous estimate of 5,000-10,000 pairs in the Falkland Islands, and is thought to represent a combination of improved knowledge and a genuine population increase. Similarly, a comprehensive survey of all known breeding sites in the South Georgia archipelago, between 2005 and 2006, indicates a population increase since the 1980s (Poncet et al. in litt. 2008), and the global population is now estimated at c.54,000 breeding pairs (Chown et al. unpubl. report 2008). Data from birds tracked from South Georgia indicate that breeders remain in the same ocean sector during the nonbreeding season (Hunter and Brooke 1982). By comparison, ringing recoveries suggest that juveniles disperse much more widely (Hunter 1984b). Males and females have distinct foraging ranges during the breeding season (Gonzalez-Solis and Croxall 2005).|
Native:Antarctica; Argentina; Australia; Brazil; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories (the); Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Madagascar; Mozambique; Namibia; New Zealand; Norfolk Island; Peru; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Uruguay
Regionally extinct:Bouvet Island
Vagrant:Fiji; French Polynesia; Réunion; Seychelles
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A total of 46,800 pairs and approaching 100,000 mature individuals (roughly equating to 150,000 total individuals) can be estimated from Patterson et al. (in press) and unpublished data from Falklands Conservation and British Antarctic Survey. This consists of an estimated 19,500 pairs on the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), 5,500 pairs on South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), 5,400 pairs on South Shetland Islands (Shetland del Sur), 3,350 pairs on South Orkney Island (Orcadas del Sur) (British Antarctic Survey unpubl. data), 2,500 pairs on Heard and MacDonald Islands (DPIW unpubl. data), 2,145 pairs on Macquarie Island, 2,300 pairs in South America, 2,300 pairs on the Tristan da Cunha Islands, 280 pairs on the Antarctic Continent. In addition, Patterson et al. (in litt. undated) estimate 1,190 pairs on the Antarctic Peninsula, 1,550 pairs on the South Sandwich Islands, 1,800 pairs on Prince Edward Islands, 1,060 pairs on Iles Crozet and four pairs in Iles Kerguelen.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It typically nests in loose colonies on grassy or bare ground. However, in the Falkland Islands it can nest in large, relatively dense colonies (Reid and Huin 2005). Average age of first breeding is c.10 years, and mean adult annual survival at South Georgia is 90% (Hunter 1984a). It feeds on carrion, cephalopods, krill, offal, discarded fish and refuse from ships, often feeding near trawlers and longliners (Hunter and Brooke 1982, Hunter 1983). Males and females exhibit clearly defined spatial segregation in their foraging ranges (Gonzalez-Solis et al. 2000, Quintana and Dell' Arciprete 2002, BirdLife International 2004).|
|Major Threat(s):||A total of 2,000-4,000 giant-petrels were estimated killed in illegal or unregulated Southern Ocean longline fisheries for Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides in 1997-1998 (CCAMLR 1997, CCAMLR 1998) and the species has been shown to be killed in trawl fisheries in the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) (Sullivan et al. 2006). However, improved mitigation in many longline fisheries appears to have reduced bycatch levels of this species around some breeding colonies (Quintana et al. 2006). Localised decreases have also been attributed to reductions in southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (an important source of carrion), human disturbance and persecution (Hunter 1984a, P. G. Ryan in litt. 1999, Pfeiffer and Peters 2006).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex 1. It is monitored at South Georgia, Marion, Crozet and Macquarie Islands, and at Terre Adélie. Several breeding islands are nature reserves; Gough and Macquarie are World Heritage Sites. The population at Gough Island was censused in 2000-2001, and again in 2003, and a monitoring protocol has been devised (Cuthbert and Sommer 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue monitoring. Conduct surveys of major breeding sites. Minimise disturbance at breeding sites. Research movements and migration. Promote adoption of best-practice mitigation measures in all fisheries within its range, particularly via existing and proposed intergovernmental mechanisms under auspices of CCAMLR, CMS and FAO.
BirdLife International. 2004. Tracking ocean wanderers: the global distribution of albatrosses and petrels. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
CCAMLR. 1997. Report of the XVI meeting of the Scientific Committee.
CCAMLR. 1998. Report of the XVII meeting of the Scientific Committee.
Cuthbert, R. and Sommer, S. E. 2004. Gough Island bird monitoring manual. RSPB Research Report.
Gales, R.; Brothers, N.; Reid, T. 1998. Seabird mortality in the Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988-1995. Biological Conservation 86: 37-56.
Gonzalez-Solis, J.; Croxall, J. P. 2005. Differences in foraging behaviour and feeding ecology in giant petrels. In: Ruckstuhl, K.E.; Neuhaus, P. (ed.), Sexual segregation in vertebrates: ecology of the two sexes, pp. 92-111. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
González-Solís, J.; Croxall, J. P.; Wood, A. G. 2000. Foraging partitioning between giant petrels Macronectes spp. and its relationship with breeding population changes at Bird Island, South Georgia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 204: 279-288.
Harrison, P. 1985. Seabirds: an identification guide. Christopher Helm, London.
Hunter, S. 1983. The food and feeding ecology of the giant petrels Macronectes halli and M. giganteus at South Georgia. Journal of Zoology (London) 200: 521-538.
Hunter, S. 1984b. Breeding biology and population dynamics of giant petrels Macronectes at South Georgia (Aves: Procellariiformes). Journal of Zoology (London) 203: 441-460.
Hunter, S. 1984. Movements of South Georgia giant petrels Macronectes spp. ringed at South Georgia. Ringing & Migration 5(2): 105-112.
Hunter, S. 1985. The role of giant petrels in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. In: Siegfried, W.R.; Condy, P.R.; Laws, P.R. (ed.), Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs, pp. 534-542. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Hunter, S.; Brooke, M. de. L. 1992. The diet of giant petrels Macronectes spp. at Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean. Colonial Waterbirds 15: 56-65.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Patterson, D. L.; Fraser, W. R. 2003. Satellite tracking Southern Giant Petrels at Palmer Station, Antarctica. Microwave Telemetry, Inc. Newsletter 8: 3-4.
Patterson, D. L.; Woehler, E.J.; Croxall, J. P.; Cooper, J.; Poncet, S.; Fraser, W. R. 2008. Breeding distribution and population status of the Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli and Southern Giant Petrel M. giganteus. Marine Ornithology 36: 115-124.
Pfeiffer, S.; Peter, H.-U. 2006. Effects of human activities on Southern Giant Petrels and skuas in the Antarctic. Journal of Ornithology 147(5): 229.
Quintana, F.; Dell'Arciprete, O. P. 2002. Foraging grounds of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) on the Patagonian Shelf. Polar Biology 25: 159-161.
Quintana, F.; Punta, G.; Copello, S.; Yorio, P. 2006. Population status and trends of Southern Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding in North Patagonia, Argentin. Polar Biology 30(1): 53-59.
Reid, T.; Huin, N. 2005. Census of the Giant-petrel population of the Falkland Islands. Falklands Conservation Newsletter: 1-2.
Rootes, D. M. 1988. The status of birds at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 80: 87-119.
Sullivan, B.J.; Reid, T. A.; Bugoni, L. 2006. Seabird mortality on factory trawlers in the Falkland Islands and beyond. Biological Conservation 131: 495-504.
Woehler, E. J. 1991. Status and conservation of the seabirds of Heard Island and the McDonald Islands. In: Croxall, J.P. (ed.), Seabird status and conservation: a supplement, pp. 263-275. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Woehler, E. J. 2006. Status and conservation of the seabirds of Heard Island and the McDonald Islands. Heard Island, Southern Ocean Sentinel, pp. 128-165. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, U.K.
Woehler, E. J.; Auman, H. J.; Riddle, M. J. 2002. Long-term population increase of Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophrys at Heard Island, 1947/1948-2000/2001. Polar Biology 25: 921-927.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Macronectes giganteus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 May 2013.|
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