|Scientific Name:||Eudyptes chrysolophus|
|Species Authority:||(Brandt, 1837)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2bce+3bce+4bce ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Crawford, R., Croxall, J., Micol, T., Nisbet, I. & Weimerskirsch, H.|
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because the global population appears to have declined rapidly over the last three generations (36 years). However, this classification relies heavily on extrapolation from small-scale data, and large-scale surveys are needed to confirm its categorisation.
Eudyptes chrysolophus breeds in at least 216 colonies at 50 sites (Woehler 1993, Woehler and Croxall 1999), including southern Chile, the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), South Georgia (Georgia del Sur) and the South Sandwich Islands (Islas Sandwich del Sur), the South Orkney and South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island (to Norway), Prince Edward and Marion Islands (South Africa), Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands (French Southern Territories), Heard and McDonald Islands (to Australia) and very locally on the Antarctic Peninsula. The total population is c.9 million pairs, with main populations at Ile des Pingouins (Crozet), Heard and McDonald (c.1 million pairs each) Kerguelen (c.1.8 million pairs) and South Georgia (c.2.5 million pairs) (Ellis et al. 1998). The South Georgia and Bouvet populations probably increased substantially in the 1960s and early 1970s, but have subsequently decreased. Study populations at South Georgia decreased by 65% in 12 years (1986-1998) (J. P. Croxall unpublished data) and the overall South Georgia population has probably halved over the last 20 years (Trathan et al. 1998). Study populations on Marion decreased by 50% between 1979 and 1998 (R. J. M. Crawford unpublished data). Numbers in the two main colonies there declined by c.30% between 1994/1995 and 2008/2009, from c.430,000 pairs to c.290,000 pairs, with a decrease of c.50% in numbers at smaller colonies there during the same period (Crawford et al. 2009, R. Crawford in litt. 2012) Populations on Kerguelen increased by c.1% per annum between 1962 and 1985, and subsequent data from 1998 indicated that colonies were stable or increasing (H. Weimerskirch per T. Micol in litt. 1999). Populations in South America may be stable but data are few. Satellite tracking of individuals during winter revealed that individuals from Kerguelen spent most of their time in a previously unrecognized foraging area, i.e. a narrow latitudinal band (47-49 degrees S) within the central Indian Ocean (70-110 degrees E), corresponding oceanographically to the Polar Frontal Zone (Bost et al. 2009). The estimation of a rapid overall decline in this species's population has recently been criticised because of the limited coverage of surveys, apparent changes in survey methodology, a lack of published data to support some local trends and the alleged overestimation of local declines (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2008).
Native:Antarctica; Argentina; Bouvet Island; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories (the); Heard Island and McDonald Islands; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Vagrant:Brazil; New Zealand; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is c.9 million pairs, with main populations at Ile des Pingouins (Crozet), Heard and McDonald (c.1 million pairs each) Kerguelen (c.1.8 million pairs) and South Georgia (c.2.5 million pairs).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It nests on level to steep ground, often walking hundreds of metres across steep screes to nest-sites. Breeding areas usually have little or no vegetation due to erosion by birds. It feeds mainly on small krill (Marchant and Higgins 1990), although individuals from the Kerguelen Islands foraging in the Indian Ocean during winter do not feed on krill, taking other crustaceans instead (Bost et al. 2009).|
Known threats at its main breeding grounds are those common to all Southern Ocean species, such as the existing and potential impact of commercial fishing, and ocean warming (Ellis et al. 1998), although oil pollution is no longer considered a likely threat (I. C. T. Nisbet in litt. 2010). The numbers breeding in colonies on Marion Island have shown declines following disease outbreaks (Cooper et al. 2009).
Conservation Actions Underway
Long-term monitoring programmes are in place at several breeding colonies (Ellis et al. 1998). Most breeding islands are protected as reserves of various kinds and Heard and McDonald Islands are a World Heritage Site. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey or resurvey all main breeding populations at major breeding sites, and research its distribution outside breeding season. Maintain monitoring programmes at selected sites. Conduct research into its demography, reproductive performance and foraging ecology (Ellis et al. 1998). Investigate the impacts of disease outbreaks on Marion Island and elsewhere (see Cooper et al. 2009).
Bost, C. A.; Thiebot, J. B.; Pinaud, D.; Cherel, Y.; Trathan, P. N. 2009. Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the Macaroni Penguin. Biology Letters 5: 473-476.
Cooper, J.; Crawford, R. J. M.; De Villiers, M. S.; Dyer, B. M.; Hofmeyr, G. J. G.; Jonker, A. 2009. Disease outbreaks among penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: A conservation concern. Marine Ornithology 37: 193–196.
Crawford, R. J. M.; Whittington, P. A.; Upfold, L.; Ryan, P. G.; Petersen, S. L.; Dyer, B. M.; Cooper, J. 2009. Recent trends in numbers of four species of penguins at the Prince Edward Islands. African Journal of Marine Science 31(3): 419-426.
Cresswell, K. A.; Wiedenmann, J.; Mangel, M. 2008. Can Macaroni Penguins keep up with climate- and fishing-induced changes in krill? Polar Biology 31: 641-649.
Ellis, S.; Croxall, J. P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Trathan, P. N.; Croxall, J. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Everson, I. 1998. Use of at-sea distribution data to derive potential foraging ranges of macaroni penguins during the breeding season. Marine Ecology Progress Series 169: 263-275.
U.S. Fish and Wildlie Service. 2008. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Four Penguin Species as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act and Proposed Rule To List the Southern Rockhopper Penguin in the Campbell Plateau Portion of Its Range. Federal Register.
Woehler, E. J. 1993. The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and Subantarctic penguins. Scientific Commission on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, U.K.
Woehler, E. J.; Croxall, J. P. 1999. The status and trends of Antarctic and subantarctic seabirds. Marine Ornithology 25: 43-66.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Eudyptes chrysolophus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 May 2013.|
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