|Scientific Name:||Phoenicopterus chilensis|
|Species Authority:||Molina, 1782|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Taylor, J.|
|Contributor/s:||Arengo, F., Clay, R. & Plenge, M.|
This species is precuationarily suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to egg-harvesting, hunting, disturbance and the degradation of its habitat. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened. Coordinated monitoring of key sites may better elucidate population trends, which may have implications for the Red List status in future.
|Range Description:||Phoenicopterus chilensis breeds in central Peru (apparently erratically, irregularly and in small numbers) (M. A. Plenge in litt. 1999), Bolivia, Argentina, Chile and perhaps erratically in Paraguay (at least one breeding record, and perhaps increasing in the Chaco, with 5,200 wintering in 2005, R. P. Clay in litt. 2000, Lesterhuis et al. 2008), with a few wintering in Uruguay and south-east Brazil, and vagrants in Ecuador and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In the mid-1970s, the population was estimated at 500,000 birds, but more recent figures of 100,000 in Argentina, up to 30,000 in Chile, and tens of thousands in Peru and Bolivia, suggested that no more than 200,000 individuals might persist, however coordinated surveys in 2010 found 283,000 individuals and estimated the total population at 300,000 (Marconi et al. 2011). Moderately rapid population declines have been suspected but data from 2010 suggest that declines may have been less rapid than previously suspected, however further monitoring is needed to confirm this.|
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Chile; Ecuador; Paraguay; Peru; Uruguay
Vagrant:Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population was estimated to number 200,000 individuals by del Hoyo (1992) and Valqui et al. (2000), however a coordinated census in 2010 found 283,000 individuals, and gave a total population estimate of 300,000 individuals (Marconi et al. 2011).
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs on coastal mudflats, estuaries, lagoons and salt-lakes at elevations up to 4,500 m. Breeding habitat is typified by the presence of suitable salinities and islands with extensive surrounding mudflats - conditions that do not occur each year. At Mar Chiquita, birds bred in only nine of the 26 years to 1999.|
|Major Threat(s):||It has probably been subject to intensive egg-harvesting since the arrival of humans in South America and, in recent years, egg-collectors have been responsible for the partial or complete failure of colonies in Bolivia (del Hoyo 1992, Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998). Mar Chiquita (Argentina), perhaps the most important breeding site, is threatened by abstraction of water for irrigation projects. Mining has wrought extensive habitat alteration, and the species also suffers from hunting and tourism-related disturbance (Flamingo CAP Questionnaire 1998).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. CMS Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Extend and continue simultaneous surveys during breeding season to monitor population. Introduce measures to control intensive egg-harvesting.
del Hoyo, J. 1992. Phoenicopteridae (Flamingos). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 508-526. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Lesterhuis, A., Clay, R. P., del Castillo, H. 2008. Status and Distribution in Paraguay of the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Flamingo 16: 41-45.
Marconi, P., Sureda, A. L., Arengo, F., Aguilar, M. S., Amado, N., Alza, L., Rocha, O., Torres, R., Moschione, F., Romano, M., Sosa, H., Derlindati, E. 2011. Fourth simultaneous flamingo census in South America: preliminary results. Flamingo 18: 48-53.
Valqui, M.; Caziani, S. M.; Rocha-O, O.; Rodriguez-R, E. 2000. Abundance and distribution of the South American Altiplano flamingos. Waterbirds 23(Special publication): 110-113.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Phoenicopterus chilensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 May 2013.|
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