|Scientific Name:||Phalacrocorax campbelli|
|Species Authority:||(Filhol, 1878)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Moore, P. & Weeber, B.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a very small breeding range which renders it susceptible to stochastic effects and human impacts. Population trends are unknown, but are assumed to be more or less stable.
|Range Description:||Phalacrocorax campbelli is endemic to Campbell Island, New Zealand, and adjacent offshore islands and stacks. In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs and 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite extended and not synchronous, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Birds usually forage in seas within 10 km of the main island (Taylor 2000).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In 1975, the population was estimated at c.2,000 pairs or 8,000 birds (Marchant and Higgins 1990, Heather and Robertson 1997). However, the breeding season may be quite prolonged and staggered between colonies, and therefore the census may have underestimated numbers (P. Moore in litt. 1999), so the number of individuals may be a more reasonable reflection of the breeding population. Nevertheless, a more up-to-date population estimate is required for this species.
|Habitat and Ecology:||It nests in inaccessible colonies of up to 150 nests on exposed rocky ledges or in sea caves. The oldest bird known lived for over 13 years (Heather and Robertson 1997).|
|Major Threat(s):||Historically, cattle and sheep may have restricted possible expansion of some colonies. Feral cats are believed to have little impact on the species (Taylor 2000), and recent observations and surveys suggest they may have died out on Campbell Island (P. Moore in litt. 1999). Brown rat Rattus norvegicus has recently been eradicated from the island but was thought to have little or no effect on breeding success (Taylor 2000, BBC 2003). The native Brown Skua Catharacta lonnbergi is a predator of eggs (P. Moore in litt. 1999).|
Conservation Actions Underway
The Campbell Island group is a nature reserve and, in 1998, was declared part of a World Heritage Site. Cattle, sheep and rats have been eradicated since the 1980s (P. Moore in litt. 1999, Taylor 2000, BBC 2003). Conservation Actions Proposed
Census the entire breeding population in the next five years and compare to the 1975 census. Turn the World Heritage Site territorial sea (out to 12 nautical miles) into a marine reserve and restrict all fishing (B. Weeber in litt. 2000).
BBC. 2003. NZ routs island rats. BBC News: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2938612.stm.
Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Phalacrocorax campbelli. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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