|Scientific Name:||Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus|
|Species Authority:||(Horsfield, 1821)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Davidson, P. & Naoroji, R.|
Although widespread, this species is now only locally common and may have a moderately small population, which is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction owing to habitat degradation, pollution and over-fishing. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||Icthyophagus icthyaetus occurs in India (widespread and locally frequent in the north-east, scarce and local in the peninsula, Nepal (now rare and local, mainly below 250 m), Sri Lanka (rare in the dry lowlands), Bangladesh (widely distributed but uncommon and local), Myanmar (rare to scarce resident), Philippines (formerly quite common in the north and east, now rare and apparently declining), Thailand (formerly a widespread resident, now absent from north and centre, rare and local in the south), Laos (now rare), Vietnam (scarce in south, disappearing from north), Cambodia (scarce and declining [P. Davidson in litt. 2003]), Peninsular Malaysia (previously common, now uncommon and sparse, perhaps 40 pairs remaining), east Malaysia, Singapore (scarce), Brunei (scarce), and the Greater Sundas and Sulawesi, Indonesia (widely distributed but uncommon in Sumatra and Borneo, and now very rare in Java) (Collar et al. 2000). Although widely distributed, the species is local and declining in most parts of its range through loss of forested wetlands. However, historical and even recent records are difficult to interpret, in South-East Asia at least, due to identification difficulties between this species and Lesser Fish-eagle I. humilis.|
Native:Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Nepal; Philippines; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species's global population is preliminarily estimated at 10,000-100,000 mature individuals on the basis that it may not exceed a five-figure total. This estimate equates to 15,000-150,000 individuals in total.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found near slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, reservoirs and tidal lagoons in wooded country, usually in lowlands but ascending locally to 1,525 m.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Major Threat(s):||The most pertinent threats are the loss of undisturbed wetlands, over-fishing, siltation, pollution and persecution. The construction of dams on the Mekong River has potential negative implications for the flood regime of Lake Tonle Sap and the Fish-eagle population there.|
Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to reveal important areas and regularly monitor at various sites throughout its range. Protect forest in areas known to be important to the species. Conduct awareness campaigns involving local residents to engender pride in the species and encourage better care of wetland habitats.
Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 May 2013.|
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